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'''Algoritma''' nyaéta susunan paréntah, nu jumlahna kawates, pikeun ngolah sababaraha paréntah nu, sakumpulan data asupanana, bakal ngahasilkeun sarupaning bentuk ahir nu bisa dipikawanoh; sabalikna ti [[heuristik]]. Konsép algoritma mindeng digambarkeun ku conto hiji [[resép]], sanajan loba algoritma kacida ruwetna; algoritma sering miboga léngkah-léngkah anu malikan ([[iterasi]]) atawa merlukeun kaputusan (saperti [[logika Boolean|logika]] atawa [[kahenteusaruaan|perbandingan]]) nepi ka tugas diréngsékeunnana.
Different algorithms may complete the same task with a different set of instructions in more or less time, space, or effort than others.
Correctly performing an algorithm will not solve a problem if the algorithm is flawed or not appropriate to the problem. For example, performing the potato salad algorithm will fail if there are no potatoes present, even if all the motions of preparing the salad are performed as if the potatoes were there.
In some countries, such as the USA, some algorithms can effectively be [[Patent|patented]] if an embodiment is possible (for example, a multiplication algorithm embodied in the arithmetic unit of a microprocessor).
== Algoritma nu dirumuskeun ==
specified task, such as calculating employees’ paychecks or printing students’ report cards. Thus, an algorithm can be considered to be any sequence of operations which can be performed by a [[Turing-complete]] system.
Typically, when an algorithm is associated with processing information, data is read from an input source or device, written to an output sink or device, and/or stored for further use.
For any such computational process, the algorithm must be rigorously defined: specified in the way it applies in all possible circumstances that could arise. That is, any conditional steps must be systematically dealt with, case-by-case; the criteria for each case must be clear (and computable).
An '''algorithm''' is a method or procedure for carrying out a task (such as solving a problem in [[mathematics]], finding the freshest produce in a supermarket, or manipulating [[information]] in general).
Algorithms are sometimes implemented as [[computer program]]s but are more often implemented by other means, such as in a biological neural network (for example, the human brain implementing [[arithmetic]] or an insect relocating food), or in [[electric circuit]]s or in a mechanical device.
The [[analysis of algorithms|analysis and study of algorithms]] is one discipline of [[computer science]], and is often practiced abstractly (without the use of a specific [[programming language]] or other implementation).
Some writers restrict the definition of ''algorithm'' to procedures that eventually finish.
== Conto ==
Notes on notation:
*''='' as used here indicates assignment.
*''List[counter]'' as used here indicates the counter<sup>th</sup> element of the list.
*''<='' as used here indicates 'less than or equal to'
Note also the algorithm assumes that the list contains at least one number. It will fail when presented an empty list.
Kecap ''algoritma'' comes ultimately from the name of the [[9th century|9<sup>th</sup>-century]] mathematician [[al-Khwarizmi|Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Musa al-Khwarizmi]]. The word ''[[algorism]]'' originally referred only to the rules of performing [[arithmetic]] using [[Arabic numerals]] but evolved into ''algorithm'' by the [[18th century]]. The word has now evolved to include all definite procedures for solving problems or performing tasks.
The first case of an algorithm written for a [[computer]] was [[Ada Lovelace|Ada Byron]]'s [[Ada Byron's notes on the analytical engine|notes on the analytical engine]] written in [], for which she is considered by many to be the world's first [[programmer]].
The lack of [[mathematical rigor]] in the "well-defined procedure" definition of algorithms posed some difficulties for mathematicians and [[logic]]ians of the [[19th century|19th]] and early [[20th century|20th centuries]].
Nowadays, a formal criterion for an algorithm is that it is a procedure that can be implemented on a completely-specified Turing machine or one of the equivalent [[formalism]]s. Turing's initial interest was in the [[halting problem]]: deciding when an algorithm describes a terminating procedure. In practical terms [[computational complexity theory]] matters more: it includes the puzzling problem of the algorithms called [[NP-complete]], which are generally presumed to take more than polynomial time.
* The probabilistic and heuristic paradigm. Algorithms belonging to this class fit the definition of an algorithm more loosely. [[Probabilistic algorithm]]s are those that make some choices randomly (or pseudo-randomly); for some problems, it can in fact be proved that the fastest solutions must involve some randomness. [[Genetic algorithm]]s attempt to find solutions to problems by mimicking biological [[evolution]]ary processes, with a cycle of random mutations yielding successive generations of 'solutions'. Thus, they emulate reproduction and "survival of the fittest". In [[genetic programming]], this approach is extended to algorithms, by regarding the algorithm itself as a 'solution' to a problem. Also there are [[heuristic]] algorithms, whose general purpose is not to find a final solution, but an approximate solution where the time or resources to find a perfect solution are not practical. An example of this would be [[simulated annealing]] algorithms, a class of [[heuristic]] [[probabilistic algorithm]]s that vary the solution of a problem by a random amount. The name 'simulated annealing' alludes to the metallurgic term meaning the heating and cooling of metal to achieve freedom from defects. The purpose of the random variance is to find close to globally optimal solutions rather than simply locally optimal ones, the idea being that the random element will be decreased as the algorithm settles down to a solution.
Another way to classify algorithms is by implementation. A [[recursive algorithm]] is one that invokes (makes reference to) itself repeatedly until a certain condition matches, which is a method common to [[functional programming]]. Algorithms are usually discussed with the assumption that computers execute one instruction of an algorithm at a time. Those computers are sometimes called serial computers.
A [[list of algorithms]] discussed in Wikipedia is available.
== Tempo ogé ==
*[[List of algorithms]]
*[[Timeline of algorithms]]
== Sumber séjén ==
* [[Donald E Knuth]]:
* [[List of important publications in computer science#Algorithms|Important algorithm-related publications]]
* [http://www.nist.gov/dads/ Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures]. "This is a dictionary of algorithms, algorithmic techniques, data structures, archetypical problems, and related definitions."
* [http://www.nr.com Numerical Recipes]