Béda révisi "Pulo Jawa"

48 bita ditambahkeun ,  10 tahun yang lalu
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bot Nambih: ace:Jawa; kosmetik perubahan
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m (bot Nambih: ace:Jawa; kosmetik perubahan)
{{kotakinfo pulo|
|nami=Jawa
|peta=[[ImageGambar:JavaLocatie-1-.png]]
|nagara=[[Indonesia]]
|kapuloan=Jawa
'''Pulo Jawa''' téh hiji [[pulo]] di di gugusan [[kapuloan Sunda]], [[Indonésia]], nu mangrupakeun pulo pangpadetna di sakuliah dunya (tempo [[daptar pulo dumasar populasi]]). Legana [[1 E11 m²|132.000 km pasagi]] kalawan 114 yuta pangeusi (864 jalma per km²), mun mangrupa nagara mandiri mah bakal jadi nagara kadua pangpadetna sadunya. Pulo Jawa mangrupakeun lemah cai pikeun pituin pikeun [[urang Sunda]] jeung [[urang Jawa|Jawa]].
 
== Géografi ==
=== Alam ===
[[Gambar:Semeru Bromo Temple.JPG|thumb|right|250px|[[Gunung Bromo]], salah sahiji pangirutan alam [[Jawa Wétan]].]]
Pulo Jawa aya dina runtuyan kapuloan jeung [[Kalimantan]] ([[Bornéo]]) di béh kalér, [[Sumatra]] di béh kulon-ngalér, jeung [[Bali]] di béh wétan. Jawa téh mangrupakeun [[Daptar pulo dumasar legana|pulo panglegana ka-13]].
Pulo Jawa ampir sagemblengna mangrupakeun bentukan [[vulkanik]], nu ngandung teu kurang ti 38 gunung nyungcung nu nandakeun ayana aktivitas [[gunung api]]. Tempo [[Gunung api di pulo Jawa]].
 
=== Manusa ===
Jawa mangrupakeun pulo pangpadetna sa-Indonésia, ampir 60% populasi Indonésia matuhna di pulo Jawa [http://www.bps.go.id/sector/population/table1.shtml]. Pangeusi ieu pulo utamana mah urang Sunda (di bagian kulon) jeung Jawa (di bagian wétan), ngan kusabab laju migrasi ka ieu pulo nu luhur pisan, utamana ka wewengkon pakotaan, méh baé lengkep ku séké sélér ti mana baé. Pikeun ngimbangan ieu masalah, ti taun [[1970]] pamaréntah Indonésia ngampanyeukeun [[program transmigrasi]]: mindahkeun sabagian wargana sacara sukaréla ka pulo-pulo nu leuwih carang populasina (kayaning [[Sumatera]], [[Kalimantan]], jeung [[Sulawesi]]) sangkan pulo Jawa teu padet teuing.
 
Pulo ieu dibagi kana genep [[Propinsi di Indonésia|Daérah Tingkat I]]:
* Propinsi [[Banten]]
* DKI [[Jakarta]]
* Propinsi [[Jawa Kulon]] (Jawa Barat)
* Propinsi [[Jawa Tengah]]
* Propinsi [[Jawa Wétan]] (Jawa Timur)
* DI [[Jogjakarta]]
 
== Sajarah ==
Pulo Jawa kawentar ku "[[manusa Jawa]]"-na, sakumpulan sésa [[fosil]] ''[[Homo erectus]]'' nu kapanggih deukeut [[walungan Brantas]] di Jawa Wétan. Kadieunakeun, kapanggih ogé sababaraha fosil ti wewengkon séjén, kayaning di situs [[Plawangan]], [[guha Pawon]], jeung sababaraha tempat séjénna.
 
=== Karajaan Hindu jeung Buda ===
<!--Titinggal karajaan-karajaan di pulo Jawa anu kawentar téh lolobana mah nunjukkeun ayana kasang tukang [[Buda]] ([[candi Borobudur]]) jeung [[Hindu]] ([[candi Prambanan]]) anu kuat. Komo budaya Jawa, nu kaciri pisan kapangaruhan ku budaya sub-buana India. In the sixth and seventh centuries many maritime kingdoms arose in Sumatra and Java which controlled the waters in the [[Straits of Malacca]] and flourished with the increasing sea trade between China and India and beyond. During this time, scholars from India and China visited these kingdoms to translate literary and religious texts.
 
The most prominent of the Hindu kingdoms was the [[Majapahit]] kingdom based in Central Java, from where it ruled a large part of what is now western Indonesia. The name of the Majapahit empire is still invoked by contemporary Indonesian leaders to promote unity and the legitimacy of the state. The remnants of the Majapahit kingdom shifted to [[Bali]] during the sixteenth century as [[Muslim]] kingdoms in the western part of the island gained influence.
-->
=== Karajaan Islam jeung penjajahan Walanda ===
<!--The earliest [[Muslim]] [[Evangelist|evangelists]] were called the [[Wali Songo]], the nine ambassadors. Several of them were of [[Chinese]] origin, leading to speculation of [[Zheng He]]'s influence on the trade in the Straits of Malacca. Many of their tombs are still well-preserved, and often visited for superstitious and religious reasons. Most of the brand of [[Islam]] that is adopted in Java is mixed with longstanding indigenous beliefs, and has a decidedly local flavor. For example, the legend of [[Nyi Roro Kidul]] was invented as a mix of the superstition common in the southern banks of Java and Islamic influences.
 
The nineteenth century saw the Dutch government take over administration of the East Indies from the Dutch East India Company, and in the mid-nineteenth century they implemented the ''cultuurstelsel'' and ''cultuurprocenten'' policies, which caused widespread famine and poverty. A Dutch author [[Multatuli|Douwes Dekker]] wrote a novel [[Max Havelaar]] to protest these conditions, and in turn the political and social movement spurned by this protest resulted in the [[Ethical Policy]], by which many Javanese elites were given a chance to earn Dutch education both in Java and in the Netherlands itself. It was from this elite that the most prominent [[nationalism|nationalist]] leaders came. They formed the core of the new government when Indonesia became independent after [[World War II]].
-->
=== Pascamerdika ===
Ku dipilihna [[Jakarta]] jadi ibukota, pulo Jawa jadi puseur kagiatan politik jeung ékonomi Indonésia. Ka dieunakeun, alatan teu walatrana pangwangunan, antara puseur dayeuh jeung pilemburan téh jungkrangna beuki lega. Dayeuh-dayeuh jadi puseur kabeungharan, sedengkeun pilemburan di pulo Jawa tetep sangsara.
 
Sacara nasional, kanyataan jungkrang laju pangwangunan téh jadi masalah, sahingga loba nu boga angen-angen hayang mindahkeun ibukota ka wewengkon nu leuwih tengah sacara nasional, misalna ka [[Kalimantan]], kalawan harepan pangwangunan bisa leuwih walatra sa-[[Nusantara]].
 
== Budaya ==
Sacara umum, kabudayaan nu aya di pulo Jawa bisa dibagi dua: budaya [[urang Sunda|Sunda]] di wewengkon kulon jeung budaya Jawa di wewengkon wétan. Wates dua kabudayaan ieu, dumasar pangaruh kakawasaan masing-masing bangsa dina sawatara sumber sajarah, kira aya di walungan Cipamali atawa Diéng.
 
''Tempo ogé [[Budaya Indonésia]]''
 
== Ageman ==
Pangeusi pulo Jawa lolobana ngagem [[Islam]], lajeng [[Kristen]] (utamana di pakotaan), [[Hindu]] di sabudeureun Banyuwangi jeung basisir nu deukeut ka [[Bali]], [[Katolik]] di sababaraha lembur di wewengkon kidul Jawa Tengah, [[Sunda Wiwitan]] di sawatara kampung adat Sunda (misalna di [[Kanékés]]), [[Budha]] nu diaragem nu urang [[Cina Indonésia|Cina]], jeung ageman lianna.
 
== Séké sélér ==
* [[urang Jawa]] (''tempo'' [[basa Jawa]])
* [[urang Sunda]] (''tempo'' [[basa Sunda]])
* [[urang Madura]]
* [[Cina Indonésia]]
 
== Tempo ogé ==
* [[Sailendra]]
* [[Singhasari]]
* [[urang Kanékés]]
 
== Bacaan salajengna ==
{{commons|Category:Java}}
* [http://fax.libs.uga.edu/DS646x2xW819j/ ''JAVA, FACTS AND FANCIES''], karya Augusta De Wit (1905). ''(faksimili nu bisa disusud ti Pabukon Universitas Georgia; [[DjVu]] & format [http://fax.libs.uga.edu/DS646x2xW819j/1f/java_facts_and_fancies.pdf lapis PDF])''
 
{{Pulo utama Indonésia}}
[[Kategori:Pulo di Indonésia]]
 
[[ace:Jawa]]
[[af:Java (eiland)]]
[[ar:جاوة]]
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