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{{Kotak info Asia Tenggara}}
'''Asia Tenggara''' atawa '''Asia Wétan Kidul''' nyaeta hiji [[subwewengkon]] di [[Asia]], nu ngawengku nagara-nagara nu sacara geografis aya di kiduleun [[China]], wetaneun [[India]] sarta kalereun [[Australia]]. Wewengkon Asia Tenggara ngampar dina interseksi pelat geologis, kalayan aktivitas seismik katut vulkanik nu rongkah.
 
Asia Tenggara ngawengku dua wewengkon geografis: Asia daratan, jeung [[island arc]] katut [[kapuloan]] nu aya di wetan jeung wetan kiduleunnana. Bagean [[Indochina|daratan]] kaasup [[Kamboja]], [[Laos]], [[Myanmar]], [[Thailand]] jeung [[Vietnam]]; nu populasina utamana [[urang Tai]] jeung [[basa Austro-Asiatik|urang Austroasiatik]]; ageman nu dominan nyaeta [[Buda]], tuluy [[Islam]]. Bagean [[Asia Tenggara Maritim|maritim]] kaasup [[Brunei]], [[Timor Wetan]],<ref>[http://www.un.org/depts/dhl/maplib/worldregions.htm United Nations]</ref> [[Indonesia]], [[Malaysia]], [[Pilipina]] jeung [[Singapura]]. [[Urang Austronesia]] nu panglobana aya di wewengkon ieu; ageman nu dominan nyaeta [[Islam]],tuluy [[Kristen]]{{Fact|date=December 2007}}.
 
=== Geograpis ===
[[Gambar:LocationSoutheastAsia.PNG|285px|thumb|right|Lokasi Asia Tenggara.<ref> This map primarily indicates ASEAN member countries, and therefore does not mark the [[Andaman and Nicobar Islands]], which are also geographically a part of Southeast Asia. </ref>]]
 
Southeast Asia is geographically divided into two regions, namely [[Mainland Southeast Asia]] (or [[Indochina]]) and the [[Maritime Southeast Asia]] (or the [[Malay Archipelago]] [[Malay language|Malay]]: ''[[Nusantara]]).
* [[Myanmar]]
* [[Thailand]]
* [[Vietnam]]
 
[[Asia Tenggara Maritim]] kaasup:
 
== Sajarah ==
{{Mainutama|Sajarah Asia Tenggara}}
 
[[Gambar:Borom That Chaiya.jpg|thumb|upright|Arsitektur dina gaya [[Sriwijaya]].]]
The peoples of Southeast Asia, especially those of [[Austronesian]] descent, have been seafarers for thousands of years, some reaching the island of [[Madagascar]]. Their vessels, such as the [[vinta]], were ocean-worthy. [[Ferdinand Magellan|Magellan's]] voyage records how much more manœuvrable their vessels were, as compared to the European ships.<ref name="Bergreen.L_Magellan">Laurence Bergreen, Over the Edge of the World: Magellan's Terrifying Circumnavigation of the Globe, HarperCollins Publishers, 2003, hardcover 480 pages, ISBN 0-06-621173-5</ref>
 
Passage through the [[Indian Ocean]] aided the colonization of Madagascar by the [[Malay race]], as well as commerce between [[West Asia]] and Southeast Asia. Gold from [[Sumatra]] is thought to have reached as far west as [[Rome]].
 
Originally most people were [[animist]]. This was later replaced by Brahmanic Hinduism. [[Theravada Buddhism]] soon followed in [[525]]. In 1400s, Islamic influences began to enter. This forced the last Hindu court in Indonesia to retreat to [[Bali]].
 
In Mainland South East Asia, Myanmar, Cambodia and Thailand retained the Theravada form of Buddhism, brought to them from Sri Lanka. This type of Buddhism was fused with the Hindu-influenced Khmer culture.
 
=== Indianized kingdom ===
{{mainutama|Indianized kingdom}}
Very little is known about Southeast Asian religious beliefs and practices before the advent of Indian merchants and religious influences from the second century BCE onwards. Prior to the [[13th century]], [[Buddhism]] and [[Hinduism]] were the main religions in Southeast Asia.
 
[[Cambodia]] was first influenced by Hinduism during the beginning of the [[Funan]] kingdom. Hinduism was one of the [[Khmer Empire]]'s official religions. Cambodia is the home to one of the only two temples dedicated to [[Brahma]] in the world. [[Angkor Wat]] is also a famous Hindu temple of Cambodia.
 
The [[Majapahit Empire]] was an [[Indianized kingdom]] based in eastern [[Java (island)|Java]] from 1293 to around 1500. Its greatest ruler was [[Hayam Wuruk]], whose reign from 1350 to 1389 marked the empire's peak when it dominated other kingdoms in the southern [[Malay Peninsula]], [[Borneo]], [[Sumatra]], [[Bali]] and southern of the [[Philippines]].
 
The [[Cholas]] excelled in maritime activity in both military and the mercantile fields. Their raids of [[Kedah]] and the [[Srivijaya]], and their continued commercial contacts with the [[Chinese Empire]], enabled them to influence the local cultures. Many of the surviving examples of the [[Hinduism in Southeast Asia|Hindu cultural influence]] found today throughout the Southeast Asia are the result of the Chola expeditions.<ref name="prambanan">The great temple complex at [[Prambanan]] in [[Indonesia]] exhibit a number of similarities with the South Indian architecture. See Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. ''The CōĻas'', 1935 pp 709 </ref>
 
=== Perdagangan Cina ===
Chinese merchants have traded with the region for a long time as evidence of Magellan's voyage records that [[Brunei]] possessed more [[cannon]] than the European ships so it appears that the Chinese fortified them.<ref name="Bergreen.L_Magellan"/>
 
Malaysian legend has it that a Chinese Ming emperor sent a princess, [[Han Li Po]] to Malacca, with a retinue of 500, to marry [[Sultan Mansur Shah]] after the emperor was impressed by the wisdom of the sultan. Han Li Po's well (constructed [[1459]]) is now a tourist attraction there, as is [[Bukit Cina]], where her retinue settled.
 
The strategic value of the [[Strait of Malacca]], which was controlled by [[Sultanate of Malacca]] in the 15th and early 16th century, did not go unnoticed by [[Portuguese people|Portuguese]] writer [[Duarte Barbosa]], who in 1500 wrote ''"He who is lord of Malacca has his hand on the throat of [[Venice]]".''
[[Gambar:Ha Long Bay with boats.JPG|thumbnail|[[Halong Bay|Hạ Long Bay]], a Natural World's Heritage Site in [[Vietnam]]]]
{{See also|Golden Triangle (Southeast Asia)|List of Southeast Asian mountains}}
Geologically, the [[Malay archipelago]] is one of the most active [[vulcanology|vulcanological]] regions in the world. [[Geology|Geological]] [[Tectonic uplift|uplifts]] in the region have also produced some impressive mountains, culminating in [[Mount Kinabalu]] in [[Sabah]], Malaysia on the island of Borneo with a height of 4,101 metres (13,455 [[foot (unit of length)|ft]]) and also [[Puncak Jaya]] in [[Papua]], Indonesia at 4,884 metres (16,024 &nbsp;ft), on the island of [[New Guinea]].
 
=== Sabudeureun ===
[[Gambar:Wallace's line.jpg|thumb|right|Wallace's hypothetical line between Australasian and Southeast Asian fauna.]]
 
The animals of Southeast Asia are diverse; on the islands of [[Borneo]] and [[Sumatra]], the [[Orangutan]] (man of the forest), the [[Asian Elephant]], the Malayan [[tapir]], the [[Sumatran Rhinoceros]] and the [[Bornean Clouded Leopard]] can be also found. The [[bearcat]] can be found on the island of [[Palawan]].
 
The [[Water Buffalo]], both domesticated and wild, can be found all over Southeast Asia, where once it was found in much greater extent in South Asia, for example. The [[mouse deer]], a small tusked deer as large as a toy dog or cat, can be found on Sumatra, Borneo and Palawan Islands. The [[gaur]], a gigantic wild ox larger than even wild Water buffalo, is found mainly in Indochina and Malaysia.
 
== Demograpi ==
Southeast Asia has an area of approx. 4,000,000 &nbsp;km² (1.6 million sq miles). [[As of 2004]], more than 593 million people lived in the region, more than a fifth of them (125 million) on the Indonesian island of [[Java (island)|Java]], the most densely populated large island in the world. The distribution of the religions and people is diverse in Southeast Asia and varies by country. Some 30 million [[overseas Chinese]] also live in Southeast Asia, most prominently in [[Christmas Island]], [[Malaysia]], [[Singapura]], [[Indonesia]] jeung [[Thailand]], sarta oge, [[Hoa]], di [[Vietnam]].
 
=== Golongan seler ===
{{See also|urang Austronesia|kelompok etnik Cina|urang Erasia (mixed ancestry)|urang Filipina|Malayu (kelompok etnik)|Negrito|urang Tai|urang Amerika Asia Tenggara}}
 
According to a recent [[Stanford University|Stanford]] [http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/AJHG_2001_v68_p432.pdf genetic study], the Southeast Asian population is far from being homogeneous. Although primarily descendants of Austronesian, Tai, and Mon-Khmer-speaking immigrants who migrated from Southern China during the Bronze Age and Iron Age, there are overlays of Arab, Chinese, Indian, European, Polynesian and Melanesian genes. The [[Philippines]] has Asia's largest [[Eurasian (mixed ancestry)]], [[United States|American]] and [[Amerasian]] population, and is continuously growing.
 
There are also large pockets of intermarriage between indigenous Southeast Asians and those of Chinese descent. They form a substantial part of everyday life in countries such as [[Thailand]] and the [[Philippines]]. Indonesia and Malaysia also has a few mixed Southeast Asian-Chinese populations.
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The region's chief cultural influences have been from either [[Culture of China|China]] or [[Culture of India|India]] or both, with [[Vietnam]] considered by far the most [[Culture of China|Chinese-influenced]].
 
As a rule, the peoples who ate with their fingers were more likely influenced by the culture of India, for example, than the culture of China, where the peoples first ate with [[chopstick]]s; [[tea]], as a beverage, can be found across the region. The [[fish sauce]]s distinctive to the region tend to vary.
[[Gambar:Mục đồng thổi sáo.JPG|thumbnail|upright|"Buffalo boy plays a flute", [[Dong Ho Painting|Đông Hồ painting]], [[Vietnam]].]]
 
Dance in much of Southeast Asia also includes movement of the hands, as well as the feet. Puppetry and shadow plays were also a favoured form of entertainment in past centuries. The Arts and Literature in some of South East Asia is quite influenced by Hinduism brought to them centuries ago.
 
In Indonesia and Malaysia, though they converted to Islam, they retained many forms of Hindu influenced practices, cultures, arts and literatures. An example will be the [[Wayang Kulit]] (Shadow Puppet) and literatures like the [[Ramayana]]. This is also true for mainland South East Asia (excluding Vietnam). Dance movements, Hindu gods, Arts were also fused into [[Thai culture|Thai]], [[Culture of Cambodia|Khmer]], [[Culture of Laos|Laotian]] and [[Burmese culture|Burmese]] cultures.
 
In Vietnam, the Vietnamese share many cultural similarities with the Chinese.
 
==== Tulisan ====
{{Mainutama|Baybayin|Jawi (script)|S.E.A. Write Award|Thai alphabet|}}
[[Gambar:101 1048.jpg|thumb|right|Balinese writing on palm leaf. Artifacts can be seen in the [[Field Museum]], [[Chicago]], [[Illinois]].]]
 
The history of Southeast Asia has led to a wealth of different authors, from both within and without writing about the region.
 
Originally, [[Culture of India|Indians]] were the ones who taught the native inhabitants about writing. This is shown through [[Brahmic family|Brahmic]] forms of writing present in the region such as the [[Balinese script]] shown on split palm leaf called ''lontar'', right:
 
The antiquity of this form of writing extends before the invention of paper circa [[100]], in [[China]]. Note each palm leaf section was only several lines, written longitudinally across the leaf, and bound by twine to the other sections. The outer portion was decorated. The alphabets of Southeast Asia tended to be [[abugida]]s, until the arrival of the Europeans, who used words that also ended in consonants, not just vowels. Other forms of official documents, which did not use paper, included Javanese copperplate scrolls. This would have been more durable in the tropical climate of Southeast Asia.
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