Béda révisi "Koala"

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== Ekologi jeung kalakuan ==
[[Gambar:Koala - melbourne zoo.jpg|thumb|250px|Koala ngahakan daun [[eucalyptus]]]]
The Koala lives almost entirely on [[eucalypt]] leaves. This is likely to be an evolutionary adaptation that takes advantage of an otherwise unfilled [[ecological niche]], since eucalypt leaves are low in [[protein]], high in indigestible substances, and contain [[phenolic]] and [[terpene]] compounds that are toxic to most species. Like wombats and [[sloth]]s, the Koala has a very low [[Metabolism|metabolic rate]] for a [[mammal]] and rests motionless for about 19 hours a day, sleeping most of that time. Koalas that are disturbed are known to be violent, their teeth and claws capable of providing considerable injury to humans; special handling requirements are as such applicable.<ref>http://web.archive.org/web/20060822012140/http://www.fourthcrossingwildlife.com/WhatToDoWithaWigglingWombat.pdf</ref> Handling of koalas has been a source of political contention due to these risks, which can also cause harm to the koala as well. <ref>http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/HansArt.nsf/66662d17d79b79d7ca256cfd000e0c22/ca256d11000bd3aa4a25644a00824515!OpenDocument</ref>Koalas spend about three of their five active hours eating. Feeding occurs at any time of day, but usually at night. An average Koala eats 500 grams of eucalypt leaves each day, chewing them in its powerful jaws to a very fine paste before swallowing. The liver deactivates the toxic components ready for [[excretion]], and the hind gut (especially the [[cecum|caecum]]) is greatly enlarged to extract the maximum amount of nutrient from the poor quality diet. Much of this is done through [[bacteria]]l [[fermentation (biochemistry)|fermentation]]: when young are being [[wiktionary:wean|weaned]], the mother passes unusually soft [[feces|faeces]], called pap, which is rich in these bacteria, thus passing these essential digestive aids on to her offspring.
The Koala will eat the leaves of a wide range of eucalypts, and occasionally even some non-eucalypt species, but it has firm preferences for particular varieties. These preferences vary from one region to another: in the south [[Manna Gum]], [[Blue Gum]] and [[Swamp Gum]] are favoured; [[Grey Gum]] and [[Tallowwood]] are important in the north, and the ubiquitous [[River Red Gum]] of the isolated seasonal swamps and watercourses that meander across the dry inland plains allows the Koala to exist in surprisingly [[arid]] areas. Many factors determine which of the 800 species of eucalypt trees the Koala eats. Among trees of their favourite species, however, the major factor that determines which individual trees the Koala chooses is the concentration of a group of phenolic toxins called formylated phloroglucinol compounds.
* Queensland - Common, or "Least Concern Wildlife" throughout the state, except in the relatively small South East Queensland Bioregion, where it is listed as Vulnerable.<ref>{{cite web | author = Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service | title = EPA/QPWS Koala designation | url = http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/nature_conservation/wildlife/koala_plan/}}</ref>
* New South Wales - listed at a state scale as vulnerable, but varying regionally from "secure" to "locally extinct".<ref>{{cite web | author = New South Wales Parks and Wildlife Service | title = NSWPWS Koala designation | url = http://www.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au/pdfs/tsprofile_koala.pdf|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20070704184116/http://www.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au/pdfs/tsprofile_koala.pdf|archivedate=2007-07-04}}</ref>
* South Australia - classified as Rare.<ref>{{cite web | author = Australian Koala Foundation | authorlink = Australian Koala Foundation | title = Koala conservation status (FAQs) | url = https://www.savethekoala.com/koalasendangered.html}}</ref>
* Victoria - The koala population in Victoria is considered "large and thriving".<ref>{{cite web | author = Department of Sustainability and the Environment | title = Victorian Koala designation | url = http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/dse/nrenpa.nsf/LinkView/E260BBD07DD52CF4CA256DE3007F11443B3BE6168C8BE71ECA256E5A0010BD5C}}</ref>