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140 bita ditambahkeun ,  2 tahun yang lalu
Ngarapihkeun éjahan, replaced: mangrupakeun → mangrupa, nyaeta → nyaéta (4), rea → réa (16), ea → éa (101), eo → éo (22), kabeh → kabéh using AWB
{{Kotak info Asia Tenggara}}
'''Asia Tenggara''' atawa '''Asia Wétan Kidul''' nyaetanyaéta hiji [[subwewengkon]] di [[Asia]], nu ngawengku nagara-nagara nu sacara geografisgéografis aya di kiduleun [[China]], wetaneun [[India]] sarta kalereun [[Australia]]. Wewengkon Asia Tenggara ngampar dina interseksi pelat geologisgéologis, kalayan aktivitas seismik katut vulkanik nu rongkah.
Asia Tenggara ngawengku dua wewengkon geografisgéografis: Asia daratan, jeung [[island arc]] katut [[kapuloan]] nu aya di wetan jeung wetan kiduleunnana. BageanBagéan [[Indochina|daratan]] kaasup [[Kamboja]], [[Laos]], [[Myanmar]], [[Thailand]] jeung [[Vietnam]]; nu populasina utamana [[urang Tai]] jeung [[basa Austro-Asiatik|urang Austroasiatik]]; ageman nu dominan nyaetanyaéta [[Buda]], tuluy [[Islam]]. BageanBagéan [[Asia Tenggara Maritim|maritim]] kaasup [[Brunei]], [[Timor Wetan]],<ref>[http://www.un.org/depts/dhl/maplib/worldregions.htm United Nations]</ref> [[Indonesia]], [[Malaysia]], [[Pilipina]] jeung [[Singapura]]. [[Urang Austronesia]] nu panglobana aya di wewengkon ieu; ageman nu dominan nyaetanyaéta [[Islam]],tuluy [[Kristen]]{{Fact|date=December 2007}}.
== Babagian ==
* {{VIE}}
SakabehSakabéh nagara nu disebutkeun di luhur nyaetanyaéta anggota [[Association of Southeast Asian Nations]] (ASEANASéaN), kajaba [[Timor Wetan]], nu mangrupakeunmangrupa calon keneh. Wewengkon ieu, babarengan jeung bageanbagéan [[Asia Kidul]], samemehna katelah [[Indies|Indies Wetan]] atawa basajanna mah disebut [[Indies]].
Although politically external territories of Australia, [[Christmas Island]] and the [[Cocos (Keeling) Islands]] are culturally part of SoutheastSouthéast Asia. MeanwhileMéanwhile, certain [[South China Sea Islands|islands in the South China Sea]] are currently disputed. [[Papua]], however, is politically part of SoutheastSouthéast Asia through Indonesia, although geographicallygéographically it is often considered as part of [[Oceania]].
=== Geograpis ===
[[Gambar:LocationSoutheastAsia.PNG|285px|thumb|right|Lokasi Asia Tenggara.<ref>This map primarily indicates ASEAN member countries, and therefore does not mark the [[Andaman and Nicobar Islands]], which are also geographically a part of Southeast Asia.</ref>]]
SoutheastSouthéast Asia is geographicallygéographically divided into two regions, namely [[Mainland Southeast Asia]] (or [[Indochina]]) and the [[Maritime Southeast Asia]] (or the [[Malay Archipelago]] [[Malay language|Malay]]: ''[[Nusantara]]).
[[Asia Tenggara Daratan]] kaasup:
[[Gambar:Borom That Chaiya.jpg|thumb|upright|Arsitektur dina gaya [[Sriwijaya]].]]
Solheim and others have shown evidence for a ''Nusantao'' (''Nusantara'') maritime trading network ranging from [[Vietnam]] to the rest of the archipelago as earlyéarly as [[5000 BCE]] to [[1 CE]].<ref>Solheim, ''Journal of East Asian Archaeology'', 2000, '''2''':1-2, pp. 273-284(12)
The peoplespéoples of SoutheastSouthéast Asia, especially those of [[Austronesian]] descent, have been seafarersséafarers for thousands of yearsyéars, some reachingréaching the island of [[Madagascar]]. Their vessels, such as the [[vinta]], were oceanocéan-worthy. [[Ferdinand Magellan|Magellan's]] voyage records how much more manœuvrable their vessels were, as compared to the EuropeanEuropéan ships.<ref name="Bergreen.L_Magellan">Laurence Bergreen, Over the Edge of the World: Magellan's Terrifying Circumnavigation of the Globe, HarperCollins Publishers, 2003, hardcover 480 pages, ISBN 0-06-621173-5</ref>
Passage through the [[Indian Ocean]] aided the colonization of Madagascar by the [[Malay race]], as well as commerce between [[West Asia]] and SoutheastSouthéast Asia. Gold from [[Sumatra]] is thought to have reachedréached as far west as [[Rome]].
Originally most peoplepéople were [[animist]]. This was later replaced by Brahmanic Hinduism. [[Theravada Buddhism]] soon followed in [[525]]. In 1400s, Islamic influences began to enter. This forced the last Hindu court in Indonesia to retreatretréat to [[Bali]].
In Mainland South Eastéast Asia, Myanmar, Cambodia and Thailand retained the Theravada form of Buddhism, brought to them from Sri Lanka. This type of Buddhism was fused with the Hindu-influenced Khmer culture.
=== Indianized kingdom ===
{{utama|Indianized kingdom}}
Very little is known about SoutheastSouthéast Asian religious beliefs and practices before the advent of Indian merchants and religious influences from the second century BCE onwards. Prior to the [[13th century]], [[Buddhism]] and [[Hinduism]] were the main religions in SoutheastSouthéast Asia.
The [[Jawa Dwipa]] Hindu kingdom in [[Java (island)|Java]] and [[Sumatra]] existed around [[200 BCE]].
The history of the Malay-speakingspéaking world begins with the advent of Indian influence, which dates back to at leastléast the 3rd century BC. Indian traders came to the archipelago both for its abundant forest and maritime products and to trade with merchants from China, who also discovered the Malay world at an earlyéarly date. Both Hinduism and [[Buddhism]] were well established in the [[Malay Peninsula]] by the beginning of the 1st century CE, and from there spreadspréad across the archipelago.
[[Cambodia]] was first influenced by Hinduism during the beginning of the [[Funan]] kingdom. Hinduism was one of the [[Khmer Empire]]'s official religions. Cambodia is the home to one of the only two temples dedicated to [[Brahma]] in the world. [[Angkor Wat]] is also a famous Hindu temple of Cambodia.
The [[Majapahit Empire]] was an [[Indianized kingdom]] based in easternéastern [[Java (island)|Java]] from 1293 to around 1500. Its greatestgréatest ruler was [[Hayam Wuruk]], whose reign from 1350 to 1389 marked the empire's peakpéak when it dominated other kingdoms in the southern [[Malay Peninsula]], [[Borneo]], [[Sumatra]], [[Bali]] and southern of the [[Philippines]].
The [[Cholas]] excelled in maritime activity in both military and the mercantile fields. Their raids of [[Kedah]] and the [[Srivijaya]], and their continued commercial contacts with the [[Chinese Empire]], enabled them to influence the local cultures. Many of the surviving examples of the [[Hinduism in Southeast Asia|Hindu cultural influence]] found today throughout the SoutheastSouthéast Asia are the result of the Chola expeditions.<ref name="prambanan">The great temple complex at [[Prambanan]] in [[Indonesia]] exhibit a number of similarities with the South Indian architecture. See Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. ''The CōĻas'', 1935 pp 709</ref>
=== Perdagangan Cina ===
{{see also|List of tributaries of Imperial China}}
Chinese merchants have traded with the region for a long time as evidence of Magellan's voyage records that [[Brunei]] possessed more [[cannon]] than the EuropeanEuropéan ships so it appearsappéars that the Chinese fortified them.<ref name="Bergreen.L_Magellan"/>
Malaysian legend has it that a Chinese Ming emperor sent a princess, [[Han Li Po]] to Malacca, with a retinue of 500, to marry [[Sultan Mansur Shah]] after the emperor was impressed by the wisdom of the sultan. Han Li Po's well (constructed [[1459]]) is now a tourist attraction there, as is [[Bukit Cina]], where her retinue settled.
The strategic value of the [[Strait of Malacca]], which was controlled by [[Sultanate of Malacca]] in the 15th and earlyéarly 16th century, did not go unnoticed by [[Portuguese people|Portuguese]] writer [[Duarte Barbosa]], who in 1500 wrote ''"He who is lord of Malacca has his hand on the throat of [[Venice]]".''
[[Gambar:StraitOfMalacca2.jpg|thumb|right|[[Strait of Malacca]], (narrows).]]
[[Western world|Western]] influence started to enter in the [[1500s]], with the arrival of the Portuguese and Spanish in [[Moluccas]] and the [[Philippines]].
EuropeanEuropéan explorers were reachingréaching SoutheastSouthéast Asia from the west and from the eastéast. A regular trade between the sailing ships eastéast, from the Indian OceanOcéan and south from mainland Asia provided goods in return for natural products such as honey and hornbill beaksbéaks from the islands of the archipelago.
EuropeansEuropéans brought Christianity allowing [[Christian]] missionaries to become widespreadedwidespréaded. Siam also allowed Western science and technology to enter their country.
China traded a lot of rice.
=== Kiwari ===
{{See also|Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere|Japanese foreign policy in Southeast Asia}}
Regional integration through [[ASEAN]] is one of the goals of SoutheastSouthéast Asian countries today.
Currently, there are various conflicting territorial and/or maritime claims, both among these countries and even involving other parties (notably both Chinas in the case of the [[Spratly Islands]]).
[[Gambar:Ha Long Bay with boats.JPG|thumbnail|[[Halong Bay|Hạ Long Bay]], a Natural World's Heritage Site in [[Vietnam]]]]
{{See also|Golden Triangle (Southeast Asia)|List of Southeast Asian mountains}}
GeologicallyGéologically, the [[Malay archipelago]] is one of the most active [[vulcanology|vulcanological]] regions in the world. [[Geology|Geological]] [[Tectonic uplift|uplifts]] in the region have also produced some impressive mountains, culminating in [[Mount Kinabalu]] in [[Sabah]], Malaysia on the island of BorneoBornéo with a height of 4,101 metres (13,455 [[foot (unit of length)|ft]]) and also [[Puncak Jaya]] in [[Papua]], Indonesia at 4,884 metres (16,024&nbsp;ft), on the island of [[New Guinea]].
=== Sabudeureun ===
{{See also|Austronesia}}
The [[Australasia]]n [[continental plate]] defines a region adjacent to SoutheastSouthéast Asia, which is also politically separated from the countries of SoutheastSouthéast Asia. But a cultural touch point lies between [[Papua New Guinea]] and the Indonesian region of [[Papua]], which shares the island of [[New Guinea]] with Papua New GuineaGuinéa. A considerable colonization effort of Papua is underway. o
=== Iklim ===
The climate of SoutheastSouthéast Asia is mainly tropical – hot and humid all yearyéar round. There is a lot of rainfall. SoutheastSouthéast Asia has a wet and dry seasonséason caused by seasonalséasonal shift in winds or [[monsoon]]. The [[tropical rain belt]] causes additional rainfall during the monsoon seasonséason. The rain forest is the second largest on earthéarth (with the Amazon being the largest). Exception to this type of climate and vegetation is the mountain areasaréas in the northern region, where high altitudes leadléad to milder temperatures and drier landscape.
=== Lingkungan ===
[[Gambar:Wallace's line.jpg|thumb|right|Wallace's hypothetical line between Australasian and Southeast Asian fauna.]]
The animals of SoutheastSouthéast Asia are diverse; on the islands of [[Borneo]] and [[Sumatra]], the [[Orangutan]] (man of the forest), the [[Asian Elephant]], the Malayan [[tapir]], the [[Sumatran Rhinoceros]] and the [[Bornean Clouded Leopard]] can be also found. The [[bearcat]] can be found on the island of [[Palawan]].
The [[Water Buffalo]], both domesticated and wild, can be found all over SoutheastSouthéast Asia, where once it was found in much greatergréater extent in South Asia, for example. The [[mouse deer]], a small tusked deer as large as a toy dog or cat, can be found on Sumatra, BorneoBornéo and Palawan Islands. The [[gaur]], a gigantic wild ox larger than even wild Water buffalo, is found mainly in Indochina and Malaysia.
Birds such as the [[peafowl]] and [[drongo]] live in this subregion as far eastéast as [[Indonesia]]. The [[babirusa]], a four-tusked pig, can be found in Indonesia as well. The [[hornbill]] was prized for its beakbéak and used in trade with China. The horn of the rhinoceros, not part of its skull, was prized in China as well.
The Indonesian Archipelago is split by the [[Wallace Line]]. This line runs along what is now known to be a tectonic plate boundary, and separates Asian (Western) species from Australasian (Easternéastern) species. The islands between Java/BorneoBornéo and Papua form a mixed zone, where both types occur, known as WallaceaWallacéa.
[[Gambar:Doppelhornvogel-09.jpg|upright|thumb|left|[[Great Hornbill]] - bird from Southeast Asia]]
The shallow waters of the [[Southeast Asian coral reefs]] have the highest levels of [[biodiversity]] for the world's marine ecosystems, where coral, fish and molluscs abound. The [[whale shark]] can be found in the [[South China Sea]].
The trees and other plants of the region are tropical; in some countries where the mountains are tall enough, temperate-climate vegetation can be found. These rainforest areasaréas are currently being logged-over, especially in BorneoBornéo.
While SoutheastSouthéast Asia is rich in flora and fauna, SoutheastSouthéast Asia is facing severe [[deforestation]] which causes habitat loss for various [[endangered species]] such as orangutan and the Sumatran tiger. At the same time, [[haze]] has been a regular occurrence. The worst regional haze occurred in 1998 in which multiple countries were covered with thick haze. In reactionréaction, several countries in SoutheastSouthéast Asia signed the [[ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution]] in order to combat haze pollution.
== Ekonomi ==
The region is also one of the most productive in manufacturing [[microprocessor]]s. Reserves of [[Petroleum|oil]] are also present in the region.
Seventeen telecommunications companies have contracted to build a new submarine cable to connect SoutheastSouthéast Asia to the U.S.<ref>{{cite web |author=Sean Yoong |title=17 Firms to Build $500M Undersea Cable |publisher=International Business Times |date=April 27, 2007 |url=http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/20070427/malaysia-undersea-cable.htm |accessdate=2007-07-28 }}</ref> This is to avoid the disruption caused by the cutting of the underseaunderséa cable from Taiwan to the U.S. in a recent earthquakeéarthquake.
== Demograpi ==
SoutheastSouthéast Asia has an areaaréa of approx. 4,000,000&nbsp;km² (1.6 million sq miles). [[As of 2004]], more than 593 million peoplepéople lived in the region, more than a fifth of them (125 million) on the Indonesian island of [[Java (island)|Java]], the most densely populated large island in the world. The distribution of the religions and peoplepéople is diverse in SoutheastSouthéast Asia and varies by country. Some 30 million [[overseas Chinese]] also live in SoutheastSouthéast Asia, most prominently in [[Christmas Island]], [[Malaysia]], [[Singapura]], [[Indonesia]] jeung [[Thailand]], sarta oge, [[Hoa]], di [[Vietnam]].
=== Golongan seler ===
{{See also|urang Austronesia|kelompok etnik Cina|urang Erasia (mixed ancestry)|urang Filipina|Malayu (kelompok etnik)|Negrito|urang Tai|urang Amerika Asia Tenggara}}
According to a recent [[Stanford University|Stanford]] [http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/AJHG_2001_v68_p432.pdf genetic study], the SoutheastSouthéast Asian population is far from being homogeneoushomogenéous. Although primarily descendants of Austronesian, Tai, and Mon-Khmer-speakingspéaking immigrants who migrated from Southern China during the Bronze Age and Iron Age, there are overlays of Arab, Chinese, Indian, EuropeanEuropéan, Polynesian and Melanesian genes. The [[Philippines]] has Asia's largest [[Eurasian (mixed ancestry)]], [[United States|American]] and [[Amerasian]] population, and is continuously growing.
There are also large pockets of intermarriage between indigenous SoutheastSouthéast Asians and those of Chinese descent. They form a substantial part of everyday life in countries such as [[Thailand]] and the [[Philippines]]. Indonesia and Malaysia also has a few mixed SoutheastSouthéast Asian-Chinese populations.
=== Ageman ===
{{See also|Theravada|Hinduism in Southeast Asia|Islam in Southeast Asia}}
Countries in SoutheastSouthéast Asia practise many different religions. ''Mainland'' SEASéa countries, which are, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, practise predominantly [[Buddhism]]. [[Singapore]] is also predominantly Buddhist. In the Malay Archipelago, peoplepéople living in Malaysia, western Indonesia and Brunei practise mainly [[Islam]]. [[Christianity]] is predominant in the Philippines, easternéastern Indonesia and Eastéast Timor. The Philippines has the largest Roman Catholic population followed by Vietnam, both ex-colonies of EuropeanEuropéan powers.
The religious composition for eachéach country is as follows. Some values are taken from the [[CIA Factbook]]:<ref>{{cite web|title=Field Listing - Religions|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2122.html|publisher=CIA factbook|accessdate=2007-02-24}}</ref>
{| class="wikitable"
Religions and peoplespéoples are diverse in SoutheastSouthéast Asia and not one country is homogeneoushomogenéous. In the world's most populous Muslim nation, Indonesia, Hinduism is dominant on islands such as [[Bali]]. Christianity also predominates in [[Philippines]], [[Papua]] and [[Timor]]. Pockets of Hindu population can also be found around SoutheastSouthéast Asia in Singapore, Malaysia etc. [[Garuda]] (Sanskrit: Garuḍa), the [[Phoenix (mythology)|phoenix]] who is the mount (vahanam) of [[Vishnu]], is a national symbol in both [[Thailand]] and [[Indonesia]]; in the [[Philippines]], gold images of Garuda have been found on [[Palawan]]; gold images of other Hindu gods and goddesses have also been found on [[Mindanao]]. Balinese Hinduism is somewhat different from Hinduism practised elsewhere, as Animism and local culture is incorporated into it. Christians can also be found throughout SoutheastSouthéast Asia; they are in the majority in Eastéast Timor and the Philippines, Asia's largest Christian nation. In addition, there are also older tribal religious practices in remote areasaréas of [[Sarawak]] in Eastéast Malaysia and [[Papua]] in easternéastern Indonesia. In Myanmar, Sakka ([[Indra]]) is revered as a ''[[nat (spirit)|nat]]''. In Vietnam, Mahayana Buddhism is practiced, which is influenced by native animism but with strong emphasis on [[Ancestor Worship]].
=== Basa ===
{{See also|basa Austrik|Austro-Asiatic languages|Austronesian languages|Hmong-Mien languages|Sino-Tibetan languages|Tai-Kadai languages}}
Eachéach of the languages have been influenced by cultural pressures due to trade and historical colonization as well. Thus, for example, a Filipino, educated in English and Filipino, as well as in his native tongue (e.g., Visayan), might well speakspéak another language, such as Spanish for historical reasonsréasons, or even Japanese for economic reasonsréasons; a Malaysian might well speakspéak Malay, Chinese as well as English, again for economic reasonsréasons.
The language composition for eachéach country is as follows: ('''The official languages have been bolded'''.)
{| class="wikitable"
|'''English''', Cocos Malay
|Eastéast Timor
|'''Tetum''', '''Portuguese''', Indonesian, English, Mambae, Makasae, Tukudede, Bunak, Galoli, Kemak, Fataluku, Baikeno, others
|'''Mandarin (Chinese)''', '''Malay''', '''Tamil''', '''English''', other Chinese dialects, other Indian languages, Arabic dialects, others
|South China SeaSéa Islands
| '''English''', '''Filipino''', '''Malay''', '''Mandarin (Chinese)''', '''Vietnamese'''
|'''Vietnamese''', Khmer, Cham, French creolecréole, Tay, Muong, Nung, English, others
[[Gambar:Rice Terraces Banaue.jpg|thumb|The Banaue Rice Terraces in Luzon Island, Philippines.]]
[[Rice paddy]] agriculture has existed in SoutheastSouthéast Asia for thousands of yearsyéars, ranging across the subregion. Some dramatic examples of these rice paddies populate the [[Banaue Rice Terraces]] in the mountains of [[Luzon]] in the Philippines. Maintenance of these paddies is very labor-intensive. The rice paddies are well-suited to the monsoon climate of the region.
[[Stilt house]]s can be found all over SoutheastSouthéast Asia, from Thailand and Laos, to BorneoBornéo, to Luzon in the Philippines, to [[Papua New Guinea stilt house|Papua New Guinea]].
The region has diverse metalworking. This include weaponrywéaponry, such as the distinctive [[Kris]], and musical instruments, such as the [[gamelan]].
=== Pangaruh ===
The region's chief cultural influences have been from either [[Culture of China|China]] or [[Culture of India|India]] or both, with [[Vietnam]] considered by far the most [[Culture of China|Chinese-influenced]].
As a rule, the peoplespéoples who ate with their fingers were more likely influenced by the culture of India, for example, than the culture of China, where the peoplespéoples first ate with [[chopstick]]s; [[tea]], as a beverage, can be found across the region. The [[fish sauce]]s distinctive to the region tend to vary.
=== Seni ===
[[Gambar:Mục đồng thổi sáo.JPG|thumbnail|upright|"Buffalo boy plays a flute", [[Dong Ho Painting|Đông Hồ painting]], [[Vietnam]].]]
Dance in much of SoutheastSouthéast Asia also includes movement of the hands, as well as the feet. Puppetry and shadow plays were also a favoured form of entertainment in past centuries. The Arts and Literature in some of South Eastéast Asia is quite influenced by Hinduism brought to them centuries ago.
In Indonesia and Malaysia, though they converted to Islam, they retained many forms of Hindu influenced practices, cultures, arts and literatures. An example will be the [[Wayang Kulit]] (Shadow Puppet) and literatures like the [[Ramayana]]. This is also true for mainland South Eastéast Asia (excluding Vietnam). Dance movements, Hindu gods, Arts were also fused into [[Thai culture|Thai]], [[Culture of Cambodia|Khmer]], [[Culture of Laos|Laotian]] and [[Burmese culture|Burmese]] cultures.
In Vietnam, the Vietnamese share many cultural similarities with the Chinese.
[[Gambar:101 1048.jpg|thumb|right|Balinese writing on palm leaf. Artifacts can be seen in the [[Field Museum]], [[Chicago]], [[Illinois]].]]
The history of SoutheastSouthéast Asia has led to a wealthwéalth of different authors, from both within and without writing about the region.
Originally, [[Culture of India|Indians]] were the ones who taught the native inhabitants about writing. This is shown through [[Brahmic family|Brahmic]] forms of writing present in the region such as the [[Balinese script]] shown on split palm leafléaf called ''lontar'', right:
The antiquity of this form of writing extends before the invention of paper circa [[100]], in [[China]]. Note eachéach palm leafléaf section was only several lines, written longitudinally across the leafléaf, and bound by twine to the other sections. The outer portion was decorated. The alphabets of SoutheastSouthéast Asia tended to be [[abugida]]s, until the arrival of the EuropeansEuropéans, who used words that also ended in consonants, not just vowels. Other forms of official documents, which did not use paper, included Javanese copperplate scrolls. This would have been more durable in the tropical climate of SoutheastSouthéast Asia.
== Tempo oge ==
* [[Southeast Asian studies]]
* [[History of Southeast Asia]]
* [[Southeast Asia Treaty Organization]] (SEATOSéaTO)
* [[Japanese foreign policy in Southeast Asia]]
* [[S.E.A. Write Award]]