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Taya parobahan ukuran, 2 tahun yang lalu
m
Ngarapihkeun éjahan, replaced: rea → réa, ngarupakeun → mangrupa, ea → éa (3), salasahiji → salah sahiji (2)
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| [[Volume molar]]
| 5.29 [[scientific notation|×]]10<sup>-6−6</sup> [[cubic metre per mole|m<sup>3</sup>/mol]]
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| [[Panas panguapan]]
'''Karbon''' mangrupa [[unsur kimia]] nu dina [[tabel periodik]] dilambangan '''C''' sarta [[nomer atom]] 6. Unsur karbon tétravalén mibanda sababaraha [[Alotrop karbon|bentuk alotrop]]:
* [[inten]] ([[mineral]] pangteuasna). Struktur beungkeutan: 4 éléktron na orbital-sp3 3-diménsi
* [[grafit]] (salasahijisalah sahiji zat panglemesna). Struktur beungkeutan: 3 éléktron na orbital-sp2 2-diménsi jeung 1 éléktron na orbital-s.
* Orbital sp1 nu kabeungkeut kovalén mangrupa hiji-hijina interés kimia.
 
Fullerit ([[fullerin]]) nyaéta molekul dina skala-[[nanométer]]. Dina bentuk nu basajan, 60 atom karbon ngabentuk lapisan [[grafit]] nu ngagulung jadi hiji struktur 3-dimensi nu sarupa jeung bal maénbal.
 
Karbon aya dina sadaya bahan organik sarta mangrupa dasar pikeun [[kimia organik]]. Nonlogam ieu ogé mibanda sipat [[kimia]] nu ahéng ku bisana kabeungkeut ku atom karbon jeung rupa-rupa unsur séjénna, ngabentuk ampir 10 yuta sanyawa nu geus kanyahoan. Nalika ngahiji jeung [[oksigén]], karbon jadi [[karbondioksida]] nu kacida pentingna pikeun [[tutuwuhan]]. Nalika ngahiji jeung [[hidrogén]], karbon jadi rupa-rupa sanyawa nu disebut [[hidrokarbon]] nu penting pikeun industri dina bentuk [[minyak bumi]] (Ing. ''fossil fuel''). Nalika ngahiji jeung oxigén lan hidrogén, karbon bisa jadi rupa-rupa golongan sanyawa kayaning [[asam lemak]], nu penting pikeun mahluk hirup, jeung [[éster]], nu méré rasa kana bungbuahan. [[Isotop]] [[karbon-14]] ilahar dipaké pikeun [[pananggalan radioaktif]].
 
== Ciri penting ==
Karbon téh unsur nu penting jeung onjoy pisan. Bentukna nu béda-béda di antarana nyaéta salaku zat panglemesna ([[grafit]]) jeung pangteuasna ([[inten]]). Lian ti éta, karbon mibanda afinitas nu kacida gedéna pikeun ngabentuk [[beungkeut kimia|beungkeut]] jeung [[atom]] leutik lianna, kaasup [[atom]] [[karbon]] séjén, katambah ku ukuranana nu leutik nu bisa ngabentuk sababaraha beungkeut. Ku ayana pasipatan ieu, karbon geus kanyahoan bisa ngabentuk ampir sapuluh yuta sanyawa nu béda. Sanyawaan karbon jadi dasar sakabéh kahirupan di [[Marcapada]], sedengkeun [[daur karbon-nitrogén]] nyadiakeun sabagian énergi nu dihasilkeun ku [[panonpoé]] jeung [[béntang]] lianna.
 
== Aplikasi ==
* Isotop [[karbon-14|<sup>14</sup>C]], kapanggih [[27 Pébruari]] [[1940]], dipaké dina [[pananggalan radiokarbon]].
* Sababaraha detéktor haseup migunakeun sajumlah ménél isotop radioaktif karbon salaku sumber [[radiasi pangionan]] (lolobana mah [[detéktor haseup]] téh maké isotop [[Amerisium]])
* Grafit dicampurkeun jeung [[clay]]s to form the 'leadléad' used in [[pencil]]s.
* [[Inten]] dipaké pikeun hiasan, mata bor, jeung larapan séjén nu ngamangpaatkeun kateuasanana.
* Karbon ditambahkeun kana [[beusi]] pikeun ngahasilkeun [[waja]].
Dina bentuk amorfna, karbon mah biasana [[grafit]] bubuk nu sok aya dina [[areng]] jeung méméhong songsong, lain dina makrostruktur kristalin.
 
Dina tekenan normal, karbon bentukna [[grafit]], nu unggal atomna kabeungkeut ku tilu atom lianna dina hiji widang datar, kawas dina [[hidrokarbon aromatik]]. Dua bentuk grafit, alfa (héksagonal) jeung béta ([[rombohédron|rombohédral]]), duanana mibanda pasipatan fisik nu sarua, iwal struktur kristalna. Grafit alam ngandung nepi ka 30% bentuk béta, padahal nu sintétik mah ngan ngandung bentuk alfa. Bentuk alfa bisa dirobah jadi béta ku cara mékanis, sedengkeun bentuk béta bisa dibalikkeun ka bentuk alfa ku jalan dipanaskeun luhureun 1000°[[Celsius|C]].
 
Alatan delokalisasi [[awan pi]], grafit bisa nyalurkeun [[listrik]] (konduktor). Bahanna lemes, lambaranana (biasana dipisahkeun ku atom séjén) napel ukur ku ayana [[gaya van der Waals]], sahingga gampang pisan leupas.
 
Dina tekenan nu luhur pisan, karbon mibanda alotrop nu disebut [[inten]], nu unggal atomna ngabeungkeut opat atom lianna. Struktur kubik inten sarua jeung [[silikon]] jeung [[germanium]], tina kuatna [[beungkeut kimia|beungkeut]] karbon-karbon. <!--The transition to [[graphite]] at room temperature is so slow as to be unnoticeable. Under some conditions, carbon crystallizes as [[Lonsdaleite]], a form similar to diamond but hexagonal.
 
Fullerenes have a graphite-like structure, but instead of purely hexagonal packing, also contain pentagons (or possibly heptagons) of carbon atoms, which bend the sheet into spheres, ellipses or cylinders. The properties of fullerenes (also called "buckyballs" and "buckytubes") have not yet been fully analyzed. All the names of fullerenes are after [[Buckminster Fuller]], developer of the [[geodesic]] [[dome]], which mimics the structure of "buckyballs".
 
== Occurrence ==
There are nearlynéarly ten million carbon compounds that are known to [[science]] and many thousands of these are vital to life processes and very economically important organic-based reactionsréactions. This element is abundant in the [[sun]], [[star]]s, [[comet]]s, and in the [[celestial body's atmosphere|atmospheres]] of most [[planet]]s. Some [[meteorite]]s contain microscopic diamonds that were formed when the [[solar system]] was still a [[protoplanetary disk]]. In combination with other elements, carbon is found the earthéarth's atmosphere and dissolved in all bodies of water. With smaller amounts of [[calcium]], [[magnesium]], and [[iron]], it is a major component of very large masses [[carbonate]] [[Rock (geology)|rock]] ([[limestone]], [[dolomite]], [[marble]] etc.). When combined with [[hydrogen]], carbon form [[coal]], [[petroleum]], and [[natural gas]] which are called hydrocarbons.
 
Graphite is found in large quantities in [[New York]] and [[Texas]], the [[United States]]; [[Russia]]; [[Mexico]]; [[Greenland]] and [[India]].
 
Natural diamonds occur in the mineral [[kimberlite]] found in ancient [[volcano|volcanic]] "necks," or "pipes". Most diamond deposits are in [[Africa]], notably in [[South Africa]], [[Namibia]], [[Botswana]], the [[Republic of the Congo]] and [[Sierra Leone]]. There are also deposits in [[Canada]], the Russian [[Arctic]], [[Brazil]] and in Northern and Western [[Australia]].
 
== Sanyawa anorganik ==
(Baca ogé [[kimia organik]])
 
Oksida karbon nu penting nyéta [[karbon dioxida]], CO<sub>2</sub>, nu ngarupakeunmangrupa salasahijisalah sahiji komponén minor [[atmosfir Marcapada]], dihasilkeun sarta dipigunakeun ku mahluk hirup, nu mibanda sipat volatil (gampang nguap). Na [[cai (molekul)|cai]], oksida karbon ieu ngabentuk sajumlah renik [[asam karbonat]], H<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub>, tapi teu stabil sabab boga beungkeut oksigén-karbon rangkep. Tina antara ieu, lajeng dihasilkeun [[ion]] [[karbonat]] nu kastabilkeun ku résonansi. Sababaraha mineral nu penting di antarana karbonat, utamana [[kalsit]].
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The other oxides are [[carbon monoxide]], CO, and the uncommon carbon suboxide, C<sub>3</sub>O<sub>2</sub>. Carbon monoxide is formed by incomplete combustion, and is a colorless, odorless gas. The molecules each contain a triple bond and are fairly [[polar molecule|polar]], resulting in a tendency to bind permanently to [[hemoglobin]] molecules, so that the gas is highly poisonous. [[Cyanide]], CN-, has a similar structure and behaves a lot like a [[halide]] ion; the nitride [[cyanogen]], (CN)<sub>2</sub>, is related.
 
With strong [[metal]]s carbon forms either carbides, C<sup>-</sup>, or acetylides, C<sub>2</sub><sup>2-</sup>; these are associated with [[methane]] and [[acetylene]], both incredibly pathetic [[acid]]s. All in all, with an electronegativity of 2.5, carbon prefers to form [[covalent bond]]s. A few carbides are covalent lattices, like [[carborundum]], SiC, which resembles [[diamond]].-->
== Isotop ==
Taun [[1961]] [[IUPAC]] (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) ngajadikeun [[isotop]] karbon-12 pikeun dasar [[beurat atom]].
* [[Karbon-14]] nyaéta [[radioisotop]] nu [[waktu satengah]]na 5715 taun sarta geus loba dipaké pikeun [[pananggalan radiokarbon]] (''radiocarbon dating'') kai, situs [[arkéologi]]s, jeung spésimén.
 
Karbon boga dua isotop stabi alami: C-12 (98.89%) jeung C-13 (1.11%). Nisbah isotop ieu dilaporkeun sacara rélatif kana baku VPDB (Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite, ti Formasi Peedee di Carolina Kidul).
 
{{Tabél périodik}}
 
[[Kategori:Unsur kimia]]
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