Buka ménu utama


18 bita ditambahkeun ,  2 tahun yang lalu
Ngarapihkeun éjahan, replaced: samemeh → saméméh, Indonesia → Indonésia (17)
* {{VIE}}
Sakabéh nagara nu disebutkeun di luhur nyaéta anggota [[Association of Southeast Asian Nations]] (ASéaN), kajaba [[Timor Wetan]], nu mangrupa calon keneh. Wewengkon ieu, babarengan jeung bagéan [[Asia Kidul]], samemehnasaméméhna katelah [[Indies|Indies Wetan]] atawa basajanna mah disebut [[Indies]].
Although politically external territories of Australia, [[Christmas Island]] and the [[Cocos (Keeling) Islands]] are culturally part of Southéast Asia. Méanwhile, certain [[South China Sea Islands|islands in the South China Sea]] are currently disputed. [[Papua]], however, is politically part of Southéast Asia through IndonesiaIndonésia, although géographically it is often considered as part of [[Oceania]].
=== Geograpis ===
{{utama|Sajarah Asia Tenggara}}
[[Gambar:Borom That Chaiya.jpg|thumb|upright|Arsitektur dina gaya [[Sriwijaya]].]]
Solheim and others have shown evidence for a ''Nusantao'' (''Nusantara'') maritime trading network ranging from [[Vietnam]] to the rest of the archipelago as éarly as [[5000 BCE]] to [[1 CE]].<ref>Solheim, ''Journal of East Asian Archaeology'', 2000, '''2''':1-2, pp. 273-284(12)
Passage through the [[Indian Ocean]] aided the colonization of Madagascar by the [[Malay race]], as well as commerce between [[West Asia]] and Southéast Asia. Gold from [[Sumatra]] is thought to have réached as far west as [[Rome]].
Originally most péople were [[animist]]. This was later replaced by Brahmanic Hinduism. [[Theravada Buddhism]] soon followed in [[525]]. In 1400s, Islamic influences began to enter. This forced the last Hindu court in IndonesiaIndonésia to retréat to [[Bali]].
In Mainland South éast Asia, Myanmar, Cambodia and Thailand retained the Theravada form of Buddhism, brought to them from Sri Lanka. This type of Buddhism was fused with the Hindu-influenced Khmer culture.
[[Gambar:Ha Long Bay with boats.JPG|thumbnail|[[Halong Bay|Hạ Long Bay]], a Natural World's Heritage Site in [[Vietnam]]]]
{{See also|Golden Triangle (Southeast Asia)|List of Southeast Asian mountains}}
Géologically, the [[Malay archipelago]] is one of the most active [[vulcanology|vulcanological]] regions in the world. [[Geology|Geological]] [[Tectonic uplift|uplifts]] in the region have also produced some impressive mountains, culminating in [[Mount Kinabalu]] in [[Sabah]], Malaysia on the island of Bornéo with a height of 4,101 metres (13,455 [[foot (unit of length)|ft]]) and also [[Puncak Jaya]] in [[Papua]], IndonesiaIndonésia at 4,884 metres (16,024&nbsp;ft), on the island of [[New Guinea]].
=== Sabudeureun ===
{{See also|Austronesia}}
The [[Australasia]]n [[continental plate]] defines a region adjacent to Southéast Asia, which is also politically separated from the countries of Southéast Asia. But a cultural touch point lies between [[Papua New Guinea]] and the IndonesianIndonésian region of [[Papua]], which shares the island of [[New Guinea]] with Papua New Guinéa. A considerable colonization effort of Papua is underway. o
=== Iklim ===
The [[Water Buffalo]], both domesticated and wild, can be found all over Southéast Asia, where once it was found in much gréater extent in South Asia, for example. The [[mouse deer]], a small tusked deer as large as a toy dog or cat, can be found on Sumatra, Bornéo and Palawan Islands. The [[gaur]], a gigantic wild ox larger than even wild Water buffalo, is found mainly in Indochina and Malaysia.
Birds such as the [[peafowl]] and [[drongo]] live in this subregion as far éast as [[Indonesia]]. The [[babirusa]], a four-tusked pig, can be found in IndonesiaIndonésia as well. The [[hornbill]] was prized for its béak and used in trade with China. The horn of the rhinoceros, not part of its skull, was prized in China as well.
The IndonesianIndonésian Archipelago is split by the [[Wallace Line]]. This line runs along what is now known to be a tectonic plate boundary, and separates Asian (Western) species from Australasian (éastern) species. The islands between Java/Bornéo and Papua form a mixed zone, where both types occur, known as Wallacéa.
[[Gambar:Doppelhornvogel-09.jpg|upright|thumb|left|[[Great Hornbill]] - bird from Southeast Asia]]
== Demograpi ==
Southéast Asia has an aréa of approx. 4,000,000&nbsp;km² (1.6 million sq miles). [[As of 2004]], more than 593 million péople lived in the region, more than a fifth of them (125 million) on the IndonesianIndonésian island of [[Java (island)|Java]], the most densely populated large island in the world. The distribution of the religions and péople is diverse in Southéast Asia and varies by country. Some 30 million [[overseas Chinese]] also live in Southéast Asia, most prominently in [[Christmas Island]], [[Malaysia]], [[Singapura]], [[Indonesia]] jeung [[Thailand]], sarta oge, [[Hoa]], di [[Vietnam]].
=== Golongan seler ===
According to a recent [[Stanford University|Stanford]] [http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/AJHG_2001_v68_p432.pdf genetic study], the Southéast Asian population is far from being homogenéous. Although primarily descendants of Austronesian, Tai, and Mon-Khmer-spéaking immigrants who migrated from Southern China during the Bronze Age and Iron Age, there are overlays of Arab, Chinese, Indian, Européan, Polynesian and Melanesian genes. The [[Philippines]] has Asia's largest [[Eurasian (mixed ancestry)]], [[United States|American]] and [[Amerasian]] population, and is continuously growing.
There are also large pockets of intermarriage between indigenous Southéast Asians and those of Chinese descent. They form a substantial part of everyday life in countries such as [[Thailand]] and the [[Philippines]]. IndonesiaIndonésia and Malaysia also has a few mixed Southéast Asian-Chinese populations.
=== Ageman ===
{{See also|Theravada|Hinduism in Southeast Asia|Islam in Southeast Asia}}
Countries in Southéast Asia practise many different religions. ''Mainland'' Séa countries, which are, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, practise predominantly [[Buddhism]]. [[Singapore]] is also predominantly Buddhist. In the Malay Archipelago, péople living in Malaysia, western IndonesiaIndonésia and Brunei practise mainly [[Islam]]. [[Christianity]] is predominant in the Philippines, éastern IndonesiaIndonésia and éast Timor. The Philippines has the largest Roman Catholic population followed by Vietnam, both ex-colonies of Européan powers.
The religious composition for éach country is as follows. Some values are taken from the [[CIA Factbook]]:<ref>{{cite web|title=Field Listing - Religions|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2122.html|publisher=CIA factbook|accessdate=2007-02-24}}</ref>
|Animisme, Konghucu, [[Buda Mahayana]], Protestan, Katolik Roma, Taoisme, [[teu boga ageman]], lianna
|Islam (86.1%), Protestan (5.7%), Katolik Roma (3%), Hindui (1.8%), lianna kaasup Buda, atawa teu jelas (3.4%)<ref name='indoCIA'>Indonesia - The World Factbook https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/id.html</ref>
Religions and péoples are diverse in Southéast Asia and not one country is homogenéous. In the world's most populous Muslim nation, IndonesiaIndonésia, Hinduism is dominant on islands such as [[Bali]]. Christianity also predominates in [[Philippines]], [[Papua]] and [[Timor]]. Pockets of Hindu population can also be found around Southéast Asia in Singapore, Malaysia etc. [[Garuda]] (Sanskrit: Garuḍa), the [[Phoenix (mythology)|phoenix]] who is the mount (vahanam) of [[Vishnu]], is a national symbol in both [[Thailand]] and [[Indonesia]]; in the [[Philippines]], gold images of Garuda have been found on [[Palawan]]; gold images of other Hindu gods and goddesses have also been found on [[Mindanao]]. Balinese Hinduism is somewhat different from Hinduism practised elsewhere, as Animism and local culture is incorporated into it. Christians can also be found throughout Southéast Asia; they are in the majority in éast Timor and the Philippines, Asia's largest Christian nation. In addition, there are also older tribal religious practices in remote aréas of [[Sarawak]] in éast Malaysia and [[Papua]] in éastern IndonesiaIndonésia. In Myanmar, Sakka ([[Indra]]) is revered as a ''[[nat (spirit)|nat]]''. In Vietnam, Mahayana Buddhism is practiced, which is influenced by native animism but with strong emphasis on [[Ancestor Worship]].
=== Basa ===
|éast Timor
|'''Tetum''', '''Portuguese''', IndonesianIndonésian, English, Mambae, Makasae, Tukudede, Bunak, Galoli, Kemak, Fataluku, Baikeno, others
|Hainan Island
|'''Mandarin (Chinese)''', Hainanese, Vietnamese, Hlai, Hmong, Tsat, Zhuang, others
|'''IndonesianIndonésian''', Acehnese, Batak, Sundanese, Javanese, Sasak, Tetum, Dayak, Minahasa, Toraja, Buginese, Halmahera, Ambonese, Ceramese, Dutch, Papuan languages, Chinese, others
Dance in much of Southéast Asia also includes movement of the hands, as well as the feet. Puppetry and shadow plays were also a favoured form of entertainment in past centuries. The Arts and Literature in some of South éast Asia is quite influenced by Hinduism brought to them centuries ago.
In IndonesiaIndonésia and Malaysia, though they converted to Islam, they retained many forms of Hindu influenced practices, cultures, arts and literatures. An example will be the [[Wayang Kulit]] (Shadow Puppet) and literatures like the [[Ramayana]]. This is also true for mainland South éast Asia (excluding Vietnam). Dance movements, Hindu gods, Arts were also fused into [[Thai culture|Thai]], [[Culture of Cambodia|Khmer]], [[Culture of Laos|Laotian]] and [[Burmese culture|Burmese]] cultures.
In Vietnam, the Vietnamese share many cultural similarities with the Chinese.