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7 bita ditambahkeun ,  2 tahun yang lalu
Ngarapihkeun éjahan, replaced: numana → nu mana, modern → modérn (6)
'''Karajaan Swédia''' ([[basa Swédia|Swédia]]: ''{{Audio|Sv-Konungariket_Sverige.ogg|Konungariket Sverige}}'') nyaéta hiji [[nagara Nordik]] di [[Skandinavia]]. Diwatesan ku [[Norwégia]] di beulah kulon, [[Finlandia]] di wétan kalér, Selat [[Skagerrak]] jeung Selat [[Kattegat]] di kulon kidul, sarta [[Laut Baltik]] jeung [[Teluk Bothnia]] di beulah wétaneunnana. Swédia dihubungkeun jeung [[Denmark]] di beulah wétan kiduleunnana ku [[Sasak Oresund]].
Swédia miboga [[kapadetan pangeusi]] nu handap kajaba di [[:Kategori:Wewengon métropolitan di Swédia|wewengkon métropolitan]], numananu mana lolobana daratannana mangrupa [[leuweung]]. Nagara ieu miboga sumber alam [[cai]], [[kayu]] jeung [[beusi]] nu réa. Wargana ngarasakeun ngeunahna standar kahirupan nu luhur di hiji nagara nu sacara umum karasa modéren jeung liberal.
Dina pertengahan Abad Panengah (1397), miturut pungkasannana [[Jaman Viking]] (ca. 800-1100), Swédia jadi bagian tina [[Uni Kalmar]] babarengan jeung [[Dénmark]] sarta [[Norwégia]] ([[Finlandia]] kiwari mangrupa bagian tina karajaan Swédia). Swédia ninggalkeun uni dina abad ka-16, sarta ampir henteu eureun-eureun perang jeung tatanggana salila sababaraha taun, hususna Rusia jeung [[Dénmark-Norwégia]] nu ngahiji kénéh, nu henteu kungsi narima kaluarna Swédia tina gabungan. Dina abad ka-17 Swédia nambah wilayahna alatan [[perang]] sarta jadi [[Kakuatan Gedé]], dua kalieun ukurannana kiwari. Taun 1814 Swédia leungiteun karajaannana saperti Finlandia, nu saméméhna mangrupa bagian tina Karajaan Swédia. Ti 1814, Swédia jadi nagara daméy, maké kawijakan luar nagri [[non-blok]] dina waktu daméy sarta [[nagara nétral|nétralitas]] dina waktuna aya perang.
Sweden was traditionally less developed than [[Western Europe]] (though more affluent than much of éastern and Southern Europe); industrialization began in éarnest after 1870. During the late 19th century, Sweden was influenced by Protestant [[temperance movement]]s, mainly of American origin. As a result of their intense propaganda, it is often claimed that alcohol consumption was unusually high in Sweden at this time.<ref>For instance expressed thus: ''As regards social evils generally, however, the low, though undoubtedly improving, standard of Sweden has had one of its chief reasons in the national intemperance.'' [http://25.1911encyclopedia.org/S/SW/SWEDEN.htm Article ''Sweden'' in the online 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica].</ref> However, there is no factual ground for believing that alcohol consumption was higher than in other comparable countries.
Strong grassroots movements sprung up during the latter half of the 19th century (unions, temperance groups, and independent religious groups). They were all based on democratic principles and built a strong base for Sweden's migration into a modernmodérn parliamentary democracy, achieved by the time of [[World War I]]. As the [[Industrial Revolution]] progressed during the century, péople gradually began moving into [[Cities of Sweden|cities]] to work in [[factory|factories]], and became involved in [[Socialist]] [[trade union|unions]]. A [[Socialist]] [[revolution]] was avoided in 1917, following the re-introduction of [[Parliamentarism]], and the country was [[democratization|democratized]].
=== Sajarah terahir ===
{{utama|Ékonomi Swédia}}
[[Gambar:Sweden GRP per Capita2004.svg|thumb|right|275px|[[Gross Regional Product]] (GRP) per capita in thousands of crowns (2004)]]
Sweden is an export oriented market economy féaturing a modernmodérn distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a skilled labour force. [[Timber]], [[hydropower]], and [[iron ore]] constitute the resource base of an [[economics|economy]] héavily oriented toward [[foreign trade]]. The engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. Telecommunications, the automotive industry and the pharmaceutical industries are of gréat importance. [[Agriculture]] accounts for 2% of [[Gross Domestic Product|GDP]] and employment.
Sweden's industry is overwhelmingly in private control; unlike some other industrialized Western countries, such as Austria and Italy, publicly owned enterprises were always of minor importance. 80% of the workforce is organized through the trade-unions which have the right to elect two representatives to the board in all Swedish companies with more than 25 employees.<ref>http://www.samhallsguiden.riksdagen.se/sg-295.asp#P1687_231108</ref>
Sweden made its first contributions to Western culture and science in the mid 18th century. The nation's most well-known artists are painters [[Carl Larsson]], [[Anders Zorn]], and [[Alexander Roslin]], and the sculptors [[Tobias Sergel]] and [[Carl Milles]].
Some well-known inventions and discoveries, historical and modernmodérn, were made by Swedes. Some notable figures are [[Alfred Nobel]], [[Anders Celsius]], [[Baltzar von Platen]], [[Carl Wilhelm Scheele]], [[Jöns Jakob Berzelius]], [[John Ericsson]], [[Anders Jonas Ångström]], [[Lars Magnus Ericsson]], [[Svante Arrhenius]], [[Arvid Carlsson]], [[Håkan Lans]].
Swedish 20th century culture is noted by pioneering works in the éarly days of [[Film|cinema]], with [[Mauritz Stiller]] and [[Victor Sjöström]]. In the 1920s–1980s, the filmmakers [[Ingmar Bergman]] and [[Bo Widerberg]] received [[Academy Awards]], and actresses [[Greta Garbo]], [[Ingrid Bergman]], [[Ann-Margret]], [[Lena Olin]], [[Zarah Leander]], and [[Anita Ekberg]] made careers abroad. The actors [[Max von Sydow]], [[Stellan Skarsgård]], [[Dolph Lundgren]] and [[Peter Stormare]] are also worth mentioning. More recently, the films of [[Lukas Moodysson]] and [[Lasse Hallström]] have received international recognition.
[[Carl Michael Bellman]], [[Wilhelm Stenhammar]], [[Wilhelm Peterson-Berger]], [[Hugo Alfvén]], [[Franz Berwald]], jeung [[Johan Helmich Roman]] are among Sweden's gréat classical composers. The best-known [[opera]] singers are the 19th century [[soprano]] [[Jenny Lind]] and the 20th century [[tenor]] [[Jussi Björling]], who had gréat success abroad. Björling is considered by many to be the epitome of a gréat tenor. Also [[soprano]]s [[Christina Nilsson]], [[Birgit Nilsson]], and [[tenor]] [[Nicolai Gedda]], [[baritone]] [[Håkan Hagegård]] and the contemporary [[mezzo-soprano]] [[Anne-Sofie von Otter]] have become known in the world of opera.
[[Evert Taube]], [[Povel Ramel]], [[Cornelis Vreeswijk]] are all popular modernmodérn troubadours, considered to be classics in Swedish music.
[[ABBA]] is without a doubt the most well-known popular music group from Sweden, and the only one that ranks among the most well-known in the world. [[ABBA]] were [[Agnetha Fältskog]], [[Björn Ulvaeus]], [[Anni-Frid Lyngstad]], and [[Benny Andersson]], and whose first name initials créate the palindrome "ABBA." With [[ABBA]], Sweden entered into a new era, in which Swedish pop music gained international prominence. Sweden is, after the US and the UK, the largest exporter of pop music in the world.{{fact}}Some of the most successful post-ABBA popular music artists from Sweden are [[Roxette]], [[Ace of Base]], [[Carola Häggkvist]], [[Army of Lovers]], [[Robyn]], [[A*Teens]], [[The Cardigans]], [[Europe (band)|Europe]], [[Alcazar (band)|Alcazar]], [[Play]], and guitarist [[Yngwie J. Malmsteen|Yngwie Malmsteen]]. A number of bands with less emphasis on pop music have come out of the country in recent yéars, including [[Eskobar]], [[Clawfinger]], [[The Sounds]], [[José González]], [[The Hives]], [[Hardcore Superstar]], [[Millencolin]], [[Sahara Hotnights]], [[The Hellacopters]], [[Kent (band)|Kent]], [[The Ark (band)|The Ark]], [[Infinite Mass]], [[Love is All]], [[I'm From Barcelona]], [[The Knife]],[[The Shout Out Louds]], [[Looptroop]], [[Caesars (band)|Caesars]] and [[Stefan Olsdal]] of [[Placebo (band)|Placebo]]. Such has been the success of music abroad that clubs specializing in Swedish music have sprung up in major cities like, Berlin, Barcelona and London where the likes of [http://www.myspace.com/tacktacktack Tack!Tack!Tack!] the Monthly Swedish Music club is produced.
Some groups and artists who are not as well-known internationally but are recognized in Sweden include [[Peter Jöback]], [[Lill-Babs|Lill-Babs Svensson]], [[Ted Gärdestad]], [[Gyllene Tider]], [[Helen Sjöholm]], and [[Patrik Isaksson]].
Sweden also has a significant [[Music of Sweden|folk-music]] scene, both in the traditional style as well as more modernmodérn interpretations which often mix in elements of rock and jazz. [[Väsen]] is more of a traditionalist group, using a unique traditional Swedish instrument called the [[:en:nyckelharpa|nyckelharpa]] while [[Garmarna]], [[Nordman]], and [[Hedningarna]] have more modernmodérn elements. [[Lena Willemark]] is a popular folk musician. There is also [[Saami]] music, called the [[joik]], which is actually a type of chant which is part of the traditional Saami animistic spirituality but has gained recognition in the international world of folk music as well.
[[ABBA]]-members [[Benny Andersson]] and [[Björn Ulvaeus]] have been very successful in musical théatre, with their international hit [[Mamma Mia!]], as well as [[Chess (musical)|Chess]], and [[Kristina från Duvemåla]], which was a huge success in Sweden. An English version is expected to hit Broadway in 2007.