Béda révisi "Klasifikasi ilmiah"

12 bita dipupus ,  3 tahun yang lalu
Ngarapihkeun éjahan, replaced: migunakeun → ngagunakeun
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m (Ngarapihkeun éjahan, replaced: migunakeun → ngagunakeun)
'''Klasifikasi ilmiah''' ([[basa Inggris|Ing.]] ''scientific classification'') atawa '''klasifikasi biologis''' hartina tata kelompok [[spésiés]] [[organisme]], boh nu aya kénéh atawa nu geus lastari. Klasifikasi modéren didasarkeun kana karya [[Carolus Linnaeus]], nu ngagolongkeun spésiés dumasar kamiripan ciri fisikna. Tata golongan ieu geus diropéa sangkan leuwih tukuh jeung prinsip-prinsip [[Charles Darwin|Darwin]], nu salajengna diropéa deui dumasar [[sistimatika molekulér]] nu migunakeunngagunakeun data runtuyan DNA. Klasifikasi ilmiah kaasup kana élmu [[taksonomi]] atawa [[sistimatika|sistimatika biologis]].
== Remembering the order ==
== Modern developments ==
Where Linnaeus classified for ease of identification, it is now generally accepted that classification should reflect the Darwinian principle of [[common descent]].
Since the 1960s a trend called [[Cladistics|cladistic]] taxonomy or cladism has emerged, arranging taxa in an evolutionary tree. If a [[taxon]] includes all the descendants of some ancestral form, it is called [[monophyletic]], as opposed to [[paraphyletic]]. Other groups are called [[polyphyletic]].
A new formal code of nomenclature, the [[PhyloCode]], is currently under development, intended to deal with clades rather than taxa. It is unclear, should this be implemented, how the different codes will coexist.
Since late in the 16th century, a number of authors had become concerned with what they called ''methodus,'' or method. By method they meant an arrangement of minerals, plants, and animals according to the principles of logical division. The term ''methodists'' was coined by [[Carolus Linnaeus]] in his ''Bibliotheca Botanica'' to denote the authors who care about the principles of classification (in contrast to the mere ''collectors'' who are concerned primarily with the description of plants paying little or no attention to their arrangement into genera, etc). Important early methodists were an Italian philosopher, physician, and botanist [[Andrea Caesalpino]], an English naturalist [[John Ray]], a German physician and botanist [[Augustus Quirinus Rivinus]], and a French physician, botanist, and traveller [[Joseph Pitton de Tournefort]].
[[Andrea Caesalpino]] ([[1519]]–[[1603]]) in his ''De plantis libri XVI'' ([[1583]]) proposed the first methodical arrangement of plants. On the basis of the structure of [[Trunk (botany)|trunk]] and [[fructification]] he divided plants into fifteen "higher genera".
[[John Ray]] ([[1627]]–[[1705]]) was an English naturalist who published important works on plants, animals, and natural theology. The approach he took to the classification of plants in his [[Historia Plantarum]] was an important step towards modern taxonomy. Ray rejected the system of dichotomous division by which species were classified according to a pre-conceived, either/or type system, and instead classified plants according to similarities and differences that emerged from observation.
Both Caesalpino and Ray used traditional plant names and thus, the name of a plant did not reflect its taxonomic position (e.g. even though the [[apple]] and the [[peach]] belonged to different "higher genera" of John Ray's ''methodus'', both retained their traditional names ''Malus'' and ''Malus Persica'' respectively). A further step was taken by Rivinus and Pitton de Tournefort who made [[genus]] a distinct rank within taxonomic hierarchy and introduced the practice of naming the plants according to their genera.
=== Linnaeus ===
Two years after John Ray's death, [[Carolus Linnaeus]] ([[1707]]–[[1778]]) was born. His great work, the ''[[Systema Naturae]]'', ran through twelve editions during his lifetime (1st ed. [[1735]]). In this work, nature was divided into three kingdoms: mineral, vegetable and animal. Linnaeus used five ranks: class, order, genus, species, and variety.
He abandoned long descriptive names of classes and orders and two-word generic names (e. g. ''Bursa pastoris'') still used by his immediate predecessors (Rivinus and Pitton de Tournefort) and replaced them with single-word names, provided genera with detailed diagnoses (''characteres naturales''), and reduced numerous varieties to their species, thus saving botany from the chaos of new forms produced by horticulturalists.
* Higher taxa and especially intermediate taxa are prone to revision as new information about relationships is discovered. For example, the traditional classification of primates (class Mammalia — subclass Theria — infraclass Eutheria — order Primates) is challenged by new classifications such as McKenna and Bell (class Mammalia — subclass Theriformes — infraclass Holotheria — order Primates). See [[mammal classification]] for a discussion. These differences arise because there are only a small number of ranks available and a large number of branching points in the fossil record.
* Within species further units may be recognised. Animals may be classified into [[subspecies]] (for example, ''Homo sapiens sapiens'', modern humans). Plants may be classified into subspecies (for example, ''Pisum sativum'' subsp. ''sativum'', the garden pea) or varieties (for example, ''Pisum sativum'' var. ''macrocarpon'', snow pea), with cultivated plants getting a [[cultivar]] name (for example, ''Pisum sativum'' var. ''macrocarpon'' 'Snowbird'). Bacteria may be classified by [[strain (biology)|strains]] (for example [[Escherichia coli O157:H7|''Escherichia coli'' O157:H7]], a strain that can cause [[food poisoning]]).
* Oft-quoted mnemonic phrases for the seven major ranks can be found at [http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/English_mnemonics#Biology].
* In botany and mycology names at the rank of family and below are based on the name of a genus, sometimes called the [[type genus]] of that taxon, with a standard ending. For example, the rose family [[Rosaceae]] is named after the genus ''Rosa'', with the standard ending "-aceae" for a family. Names above the rank of family are formed from a family name, or are descriptive (like [[Gymnospermae]] or [[Fungi]]).
* For animals, there are standard suffixes for taxa only up to the rank of superfamily (ICZN article 27.2).
* Forming a name based on a generic name may be not straightforward. For example, the [[Latin]] "''homo''" has the genitive "''hominis''", thus the genus "''Homo''" (human) is in the [[Hominidae]], not "Homidae".
* Atran, S. ''Cognitive foundations of natural history: towards an anthropology of science.'' Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. 1990. xii+360 p. ISBN [http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0521372933 0521372933]
* Larson, J. L. ''Reason and experience. The representation of Natural Order in the work of Carl von Linne.'' Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. 1971. VII+171 p.
* Stafleau, F. A. ''Linnaeus and the Linnaeans. The spreading of their ideas in systematic botany, 1753-1789.'' Utrecht: Oosthoek. 1971. xvi+386 p.
* Stafleau, F. A. ''Linnaeus and the Linnaeans. The spreading of their ideas in systematic botany, 1753-1789.'' Utrecht: Oosthoek. 1971. xvi+386 p.
==See also==
* Pikeun klasifikasi sasatoan sacara kladistik: [http://anthro.palomar.edu/animal/default.htm Classification of living things]
* Pikeun jéntréna ngeunaan sajarah klasifikasi serangga, baca [http://www.insecta.bio.pu.ru/index.htm Nomina Circumscribentia Insectorum].
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