Béda révisi "Ménopause"

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Sacara klinis, ménopause nujul ka titi mangsa anggeusna kareseban anu panungtung. Normalna, ieu téh ninggang dina umur antara 45 jeung 55, lolobana 51. "Ménopauseu ngora" (''early menopause'') nujul ka pungkasan kareseban dina umur 40-45, sedengkeun mun ninggangna dina umur 55-60 disebutna "ménopauseu telat" (''late menopause''). Mun kareseban dipungkas saméméh nincak umur 40, disebutna "ménopauseu prématur" sarta dianggap kaayaan anu henteu normal.<!--
In common everyday parlance however, the word "menopause" is most often used to refer to the menopause transition years, also known as the '''change of life''' or the '''climacteric'''. This time of life is also sometimes known as perimenopause, (literally meaning around menopause).
"Perimenopause" refers to the years both before and after the last period ever, when many women find that they undergo symptoms of hormonal change and fluctuation, such as hot flashes, mood changes, insomnia, etc.
The term "premenopause" refers to the years leading up to last period ever, and the term "postmenopause" refers to the years after last period ever.
A woman who still has her uterus can only be declared to be in post-menopause once she has gone 12 full months with no flow at all, not even any spotting. At that point she is one year into post-menopause. The reason for this delay in declaring a woman post-menopausal is because periods become very erratic at this time of life, and therefore a reasonably long stretch of time is necessary to be sure that the cycling has actually ceased.
In women who have no uterus and therefore have no periods, post-menopause can be determined by a blood test which can reveal the very high levels of FSH or Follicle Stimulating Hormone typical of post-menopausal women.
== Perimenopause ==
'''Perimenopause''' refers to the time preceding and immediately after menopause, during which the production of hormones such as [[estrogen]] and [[progesterone]] diminish and become more irregular, often with wide and unpredictable fluctuations in levels. During this period, fertility diminishes. When twelve months have passed without any menstruation, a woman is considered to be one year into postmenopause.
Symptoms of perimenopause can begin as early as age 35, although most women become aware of them about 10 years later than this. Perimenopause, the menopause transition time, can last for a few months, for several years, or for 10 years or even longer. In this respect it resembles adolescence, a similar process that surrounds puberty. In fact menopause has been compared to "puberty in reverse." The actual duration of perimenopause in any individual woman cannot be predicted in advance or during the process.
As the body adapts to the changing levels of natural [[hormone]]s, [[vasomotor]] symptoms such as [[hot flash]]es and [[palpitation]]s, psychological symptoms such as [[Clinical depression|depression]], [[anxiety]], irritability, [[mood swing]]s and lack of concentration, and atrophic symptoms such as vaginal dryness and urgency of urination appear. Together with these symptoms, the woman may also have increasingly erratic menstrual periods.
The clinical features of menopause are caused by lessening amounts of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone in the woman's body.
==Treatment of symptoms==
While menopause is a natural stage of life, some symptoms may be alleviated through medical treatments. [[Hormone therapy]] (HT) provides the best relief, but certain forms appear to pose significant health risks. Some drugs afford limited relief from hot flashes. A woman and her doctor should carefully review her symptoms and relative risk before determining whether the benefits of HT or other therapies outweigh the risks. Until more becomes known, women who elect to use hormone replacement therapy are generally well advised to take the lowest effective dose of HRT for the shortest period possible and to investigate whether certain forms may pose fewer dangers of clots or cancer than others.
===Hormone therapy===
===Complementary and alternative therapies===
It should be noted that medical non-hormone treatments provide less than complete relief, and each has side effects.
In the area of complementary and alternative therapies, [[acupuncture]] treatment is promising. There are some studies indicating positive effects, especially on hot flashes <ref>
[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=17182200&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum] Nir Y, Huang MI, Schnyer R, Chen B, Manber R.
===Other therapies===
Individual counseling or support groups may be helpful to handle sad, depressed, or confusing feelings women may be having as their bodies change. Vaginal moisturizers such as Vagisil or Replens, can help women with thinning vaginal tissue or dryness. Lubricants, such as K-Y Jelly or Astroglide, can help with lubrication difficulties that may be present during intercourse. Moisturizers and lubricants are different products for different types of issues. Some women feel dry apart from sex and they may do better with moisturizers all the time. Those who just need lubricants are fine just using the lubrication products during intercourse. Low-dose vaginal estrogen is generally a safe way to take estrogen to solve vaginal thinning and dryness problems while only minimally increasing the levels of estrogen in the blood.
Obvious measures, such as drinking cold liquids and removing excess clothing layers when hot flashes strike, and avoiding hot flash triggers such as spicy foods, may supplement or supplant the use of medications for some women.