Béda révisi "Insinyur"

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Insinyur jeung élmuwan sakapeung matak bingung jalma awam. Kukituna ditegeskeun yén [[élmuwan]] mah gawéna ngambahan alam sangkan bisa manggihan prinsip-prinsip umumna, sabalikna insinyur nerapkeun prinsip-prinsip nu diwawarkeun tina matématika jeung [[sains]] pikeun nyieun jawaban praktis tur ékonomis tina masalah-masalah téknis.<ref>{{cite web|author=[[National Society of Professional Engineers]]|title=Frequently Asked Questions About Engineering |url=http://www.nspe.org/media/mr1-faqs.asp|accessdate=2006-09-21|year=2006}} ''Science is knowledge based on observed facts and tested truths arranged in an orderly system that can be validated and communicated to other people. Engineering is the creative application of scientific principles used to plan, build, direct, guide, manage, or work on systems to maintain and improve our daily lives.''</ref><ref name="bls">{{cite web|author=[[Bureau of Labor Statistics]], U.S. Department of Labor|title=Engineers|work=Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2006-07 Edition |url=http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos027.htm|accessdate=2006-09-21|year=2006}}</ref> Cindekna, élmuwan diajar (ti alam), insinyur mah nyieun atawa ngabangun barang-barang. Pagawéan insinyur minangka panyambung antara pangabutuh sosial nu karasa jeung aplikasi komérsial. Insinyur nimbang-nimbang loba hal nalika ngamekarkeun hiji produk. Contona, nalika mekarkeun hiji robot industri (robot pikeun kaperluan industri), insinyur sacara présisi nangtukeun sakabéh kaperluan fungsina, ngarancang jeung nguji komponén-kompónenna; ngahijikeun komponén-komponén éta sangkan jadi rancangan ahir; sarta mariksa éféktivitas rancangan, biaya, katahanan, jeung kasalametanana. Prosés ieu tumerap nalika mekarkeun rupa-rupa produk, contona kimiawi, [[komputer]], [[mesin]], [[kapal udara]], atawa [[cocooan]].<ref name="bls"/>
 
Salian ti ngarancang jeung ngamekarkeun, loba insinyur nu gawéna dina widang uji, produksi, atawa miara produk. Insinyur-insinyur ieu nempoan produksi di pabrik-pabrik, nangtukeun sabab-sabab kasalahan komponén, sarta nguji barang-barang nu diproduksi sangkan kualitasna kajamin. Maranéhanana ogé ngira-ngira waktu jeung ongkos pikeun méréskeun hiji proyék. Sababaraha urang ogé gawé dina widang '''manajemén rékayasa''' atawa ngadagangkeunaya ogé nu widang dagang. Nalika dagang, kasang tukang salaku insinyur aya gunana dina ngabahas aspék-aspék téknis sarta ngabantu dina ngarencanakeun produk, nginstalasi, sarta makéna. 'Insinyur pangawas' ('''Supervisory engineers''') nganggung jawab bagian-bagian utama dina proyék.<ref name="bls"/>
 
Insinyur maké komputer sacara éksténsif pikeun mroduksi jeung nganalisis rancangan; pikeun [simulasi|nyimulasikeun] sarta nguji kumaha gawé hiji mesin, struktur, atawa sistem; sarta pikeun narataskeun spésifikasi komponén. Loba insinyur ogé nu maké komputer pikeun ngawas kualitas produk jeung ngadalikeun éfisiénsi prosés.<ref name="bls"/>
 
== Gelar "Insinyur" ==
{{tarjamahkeun|Inggris}} [http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Engineer&oldid=174201680]
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== "Engineer" as a title ==
In some countries of [[Continental Europe]] and Latin America the title is limited by law to people with an engineering degree, and the use of the title by others (even persons with much work experience) is illegal. In [[Italy]] the title is limited to people who, besides holding an engineering degree, have passed a professional abilitation exam (Esame di Stato). In [[Portugal]], professional engineer titles and accredited engineering degrees are regulated and certified by the ''[[Ordem dos Engenheiros]]''. In the [[Czech Republic]] the title "engineer" (Ing.) is given to people with a degree in chemistry, mechanical engineering or even economics (the last one is due to the historical reasons and tradition).
 
Di sababaraha nagara di [[Éropa]] Daratan jeung [[Amérika Latin]], gelar insinyur diwatesan sacara hukum ngan pikeun jalma nu sakolana lulus ti jurusan rékayasa atawa téknik, jeung pamakéan gelar ieu ku nu lian téh (sanajan masagi ku pangalaman) dianggap ilégal. Di [[Italia]] salian ku nu lulus jurusan rékayasa, gelar ieu bisa dipaké ogé ku nu lulus ujian profési insinyur (''"Esame di Stato"''). Di [[Portugis]] gelar insinyur profésional sarta insinyur kaakréditasi diatur jeung disértifikasi ku ''[[Ordem dos Engenheiros]]''. Di [[Républik Céko]] gelar "insinyur" (Ing.) dianugrahkeun ogé ka nu lulus ti widang [[kimia]], téknik mesin, atawa malah ékonomi. Nu pangahirna ieu aya kénéh lantaran alesan sajarah jeung tradisi.
Laws exist in all [[United States|U.S.]] states, [[Canada]] and in [[South Africa]] which limit the use of several engineer titles, particularly the title of "[[Professional Engineer]]," and often also titles indicating a specific, regulated branch of engineering, such as "[[civil engineer]]" or "[[mechanical engineer]]." Most U.S. states prohibit unlicensed persons from calling themselves an "engineer" or indicating branches or specialties not covered by the licensing acts. The legal situation regarding the title of "engineer" in Canada is unsettled. (See ''[[Professional Engineer]]'' for more details).
 
Hukum-hukum di sakabéh nagara bagian [[Amérika Sarikat]], [[Kanada]], sarta di [[Afrika Kidul]] ngawatesan pamakéan sababaraha gelar insinyur, hususna "[[Insinyur Profésional]]", sarta sababaraha gelar insinyur nu husus, saperti "[[insinyur sipil]]" atawa "[[insinyur mesin]]". Kalolobaan nagara bagian di A.S. ngararang jalma nu teu boga ijasah nyebut dirina sorangan "insinyur" atawa spésialisasi nu henteu kawengku ku ijasah nu dipibogana. Di [[Kanada]], status legal samodél di A.S. ieu tacan diputuskeun. (See ''[[Insinyur Profésional]]'' ngarah leuwih écés).
The word "[[technologist]]" is sometimes used synonymously as it derives from the prefix '''techno-''' and the suffix -[[ologist]], hence, someone who studies technology. This applies particularly to those European countries with laws regulating the use of the title "engineer." However, in Britain as well as some European countries, the term "technologist" is a certification or registration that is equal to an engineer but has a different focus than design. For example, a technologist may focus on Technical Management, Manufacturing Engineering, or an Applied Engineering practices. A technologist maybe a better choice to fill positions that require applied engineering skills than a design engineer. Regulation of the Technologist title is cover by the Sydney Accord which is currently overseen by the Engineering Council of the United Kingdom.
 
Kecap "[[téknolog]]" atawa "[[ahli téknologi]]" sakapeung di dipaké salaku 'saurang anu diajar téknologi'. Hal ieu bisa kapanggih di sababaraha nagara Éropa nu miboga hukum-hukum nu ngatur pamakéan gelar "insinyur". Ngan pédah ari di Inggris tur sababaraha nagara Éropa, istilah "téknolog" dipaké pikeun sértifikasi atawa régistrasi nu sarua jeung insinyur tapi fokusna lain dina hal ngararancang produk. Contona, saurang téknolog bisa fokus dina hal manajémen téknis, rékayasa manufaktur, atawa prakték-prakték insinyur terapan. Saurang téknolog bisa jadi pilihan nu leuwih alus ngeusian pagawéan nu merlukeun kabisa widang rékayasa terapan batan saurang insinyur nu gawéna ngadesain produk. Aturan ngeunaan gelar téknolog ieu diwengku ku Pasaluyuan Sydney anu ogé diaku ku Badan Rékayasa Inggris. Di Indonésia, gelar téknolog sarimbag pikeun lulusan sakola politéknik.
== Other meanings ==
 
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== Harti Séjénna ==
In Britain, the term 'engineer' is often mistakenly used to describe a technician or a person that mends and operates machinery. A notable example was on Page 8 of the 2001 UK Census Form, where one of the example job titles listed was "Television Service Engineer" (http://www.statistics.gov.uk/census2001/pdfs/engh1.pdf). (This is in contrast to mainland Europe, where engineering is seen as comparable to other professions such as medicine and architecture - see above.) Professional engineers registered with the [[Engineering Council UK]] have the exclusive right to the titles [[Chartered Engineer (UK)|Chartered Engineer]] and [[Incorporated engineer|Incorporated Engineer]]. These titles are only awarded after a rigorous formation including higher education, training and experience.
 
Release|month=July|year=2002|accessdate=2006-05-13}}</ref> A 2001 reader survey by Microsoft Certified Professional magazine found that over half of respondents supported changing the name of the MCSE to remove the word "engineer".<ref>{{cite web|last=Schaffhauser|first=D.L.|title=Microsoft Certified Systems Expert?
|url=http://mcpmag.com/news/article.asp?EditorialsID=394|work=Microsoft Certified Professional Magazine Online|month=August|year=2001|accessdate=2006-05-13}}, ''"Of 2,017 responses, 526 of you said, 'Don't change the name at all.' Of the 1,320 who said that only the word Engineer should change, the overwhelming majority—502 respondents—liked 'Expert' as a replacement. "''</ref>
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===MilitaryInsinyur engineersMilitér===
 
Saurang [[insinyur militér]] dina [[army|kasatuan soldadu]] nyaéta saurang anggota militér anu nanggung jawab pikeun ngarancang jeung ngonstruksi pakarang perang, sarta ngaruksak pakarang musuh dina kondisi perang, boh nu sipatna ofénsif atawa défénsif. Istilah ieu dipaké dina unit-unit militér sakuliah dunya sarta ti saprak jaman kuna. Di jaman ayeuna, istilah ieu ngawengku ogé nu nempatkeun jeung ngalindeukkeun [[ranjau]] jeung ''[[booby trap]]''.
An [[army]] [[military engineer]] is a member of any branch of the armed forces responsible for the design and construction and also the destruction of offensive, defensive and logistical structures for warfare. This term is used in military units throughout the world and has been used since ancient times, extended in modern terms to include the laying and disarming of [[minefield]]s and [[booby trap]]s.
 
Pagawé rékayasa di kapal-kapal gedé sarta palayar téknik sénior disebutna "Insinyur Kepala". Di kapal-kapal nu leuwih leutik tanpa pagawé rékayasa, insinyur kepala jadi lulugu dina departémén rékayasa. Jabatan ieu dina angkatan laut A.S. biasa disingget "the CHENG" (tina: ''Chief Engineer''). Kitu ogé di angkatan laut Inggris.
The Engineering Officer in larger ships, and the senior engineering sailor (typically a [[Chief Petty Officer]]) is called the Chief Engineer. In smaller ships without an Engineering Officer the Chief Engineer runs the engineering department. To facilitate brevity of communication in an operational shipboard environment, the Chief Engineer on United States Navy vessels is colloquially referred to and addressed as "The CHENG", or simply "CHENG".
 
In the British Merchant Navy, the Chief Engineer is a rank equivalent to the Senior Engineering Officer on a US ship.
 
{{tarjamahkeun|Inggris}} [http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Engineer&oldid=174201680]
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