Béda révisi "Kaén"

15.387 bita dipupus ,  14 tahun yang lalu
Ngaganti kaca ku '#REDIRECT Lawon'
(Kaca anyar: {{otheruses}} {{Redirect|Fabric}} 300px|thumb|right|Sunday textile market on the sidewalks of Karachi, Pakistan. '''Lawon''' nyaéta bahan (maté...)
(Ngaganti kaca ku '#REDIRECT Lawon')
[[Image:Karachi - Pakistan-market.jpg|300px|thumb|right|Sunday textile market on the sidewalks of Karachi, Pakistan.]]
'''Lawon''' nyaéta bahan (matérial) anu dijieun tina anyaman [[benang]], boh benang alam atawa benang buatan. Benang sorangan dijieunna ku cara muntirkeun atawa mintal (id: ''memintal'', en:''[[spinning]]'') serat, nyaéta sarupaning serat [[wol]], [[sutra]], [[katun]], atawa serat séjénna dina hiji pakakas [[spinning wheel|pintal benang]].<ref>{{cite web | title = An Introduction to Textile Terms | rk = The Textile Museum | url = http://www.textilemuseum.org/PDFs/TextileTerms.pdf | format = pdf | accessmonthday = August 6 | accessyear = 2006}}</ref> <!--Lawon [[weaving]], [[knitting]], [[crochet]]ing, [[Macramé|knotting]], or pressing fibers together ([[felt]]). -->
'Lawon' ilahar disebut ogé 'kaén' minangka kapangaruhan ku basa Indonésia.
The words ''fabric'' and ''cloth'' are commonly used in textile assembly trades (such as [[tailor]]ing and [[Dressmaker|dressmaking]]) as synonyms for ''textile''. However, there are subtle differences in these terms. ''Textile'' refers to any material made of interlacing fibres. ''Fabric'' refers to any material made through weaving, knitting, crocheting, or bonding. ''Cloth'' refers to a finished piece of fabric that can be used for a purpose such as covering a bed.
{{main|History of textiles}}
[[Image:DumbartonOaksTextileEuropa.jpg|left|thumb|150px|Late antique textile, [[Egypt]]ian, now in the [[Dumbarton Oaks]] collection.]]
The production of textiles is an important craft, whose speed and scale of production has been altered almost beyond recognition by industrialization and the introduction of modern manufacturing techniques. However, for the main types of textiles, [[plain weave]], [[twill]] or [[satin weave]] there is little difference between the ancient and modern methods.
Incan Indians have been crafting [[quipus]] (or ''khipus'') made of fibers either from a protein, such as spun and plied thread like wool or hair from camelids such as alpacas, llamas and camels or from a cellulose like cotton for thousands of years. Khipus are a series of knots along pieces of string. They have been believed to only have acted as a form of accounting, although new evidence conducted by [[Harvard]] professor, [[Gary Urton]], indicates there may be more to the khipu than just numbers. Preservation of khipus found in museum and archive collections follow general [[textile preservation]] principles and practice.
Textiles have an assortment of uses, the most common of which are for [[clothing]] and containers such as [[bag]]s and [[basket]]s. In the household, they are used in [[carpet]]ing, upholstered [[furniture|furnishings]], [[window shade]]s, [[towel]]s, covering for tables, beds, and other flat surfaces, and in [[art]]. In the workplace, they are used in industrial and scientific processes such as filtering. Miscellaneous uses include [[flag]]s,[[backpack]], [[tent]]s, [[Net (device)|net]]s, [[cleaning]] devices, such as [[handkerchief]]s; [[transportation]] devices such as [[balloon]]s, [[kite flying|kite]]s, [[sail]]s, and [[parachute]]s; strengthening in [[composite material]]s such as [[fibre glass]] and industrial [[geotextile]]s, and smaller cloths are used in washing by "soaping up" the cloth and washing with it rather than using just soap.
Textiles used for industrial purposes, and chosen for characteristics other than their appearance, are commonly referred to as ''[[technical textiles]].'' Technical textiles include textile structures for automotive applications, medical textiles (e.g. implants), geotextiles (reinforcement of embankments), agrotextiles (textiles for crop protection), protective clothing (e.g. against heat and radiation for fire fighter clothing, against molten metals for welders, stab protection, and [[bullet]] proof vests. In all these applications stringent performance requirements must be met.
==Fashion and textile designs==
Fashion designers commonly rely on textile designs to set their fashion collections apart from others.
[[Marisol Deluna]], [[Nicole Miller]], [[Lilly Pulitzer]], the late [[Gianni Versace]] and [[Emilio Pucci]] can be easily recognized by their signature print driven designs.
==Sources and types==
[[Image:Tablecloth romanian 1full view.jpg#Summary|200px|thumb|right|Traditional Romanian fabric]]
Textiles can be made from many materials. These materials come from four main sources: animal, plant, mineral, and synthetic. In the past, all textiles were made from natural fibres, including plant, animal, and mineral sources. In the [[20th century]], these were supplemented by artificial fibres made from [[petroleum]].
Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from the finest [[Textile manufacturing terminology|gossamer]] to the sturdiest [[canvas]]. The relative thickness of fibres in cloth is measured in [[denier (measure)|denier]]s. [[Microfiber]] refers to fibers made of strands thinner than one denier.
===Animal textiles===
Animal textiles are commonly made from [[hair]] or [[fur]].
[[Wool]] refers to the hair of the domestic [[goat]] or [[sheep]], which is distinguished from other types of animal hair in that the individual strands are coated with scales and tightly crimped, and the wool as a whole is coated with an [[oil]] known as [[lanolin]], which is waterproof and dirtproof. [[Woollen]] refers to a bulkier yarn produced from carded, non-parallel fibre, while [[worsted]] refers to a finer yarn which is spun from longer fibres which have been combed to be parallel. Wool is commonly used for warm clothing. [[Cashmere wool|Cashmere]], the hair of the Indian [[cashmere goat]], and [[mohair]], the hair of the North African [[angora goat]], are types of wool known for their softness.
Other animal textiles which are made from hair or fur are [[Alpaca|alpaca wool]], [[Vicuña|vicuña wool]], [[Llama|llama wool]], and [[Camel|camel hair]], generally used in the production of [[coat]]s, [[jacket]]s, [[poncho]]s, [[blanket]]s, and other warm coverings. [[Angora]] refers to the long, thick, soft hair of the [[angora rabbit]].
Wadmal is a coarse cloth made of wool, produced in Scandinavia, mostly 1000~1500CE.
[[Silk]] is an animal textile made from the fibers of the [[Pupa#Cocoon|cocoon]] of the Chinese [[silkworm]]. This is spun into a smooth, shiny fabric prized for its sleek texture.
===Plant textiles===
[[Poaceae|Grass]], [[Juncaceae|rush]], [[hemp]], and [[sisal]] are all used in making rope. In the first two, the entire plant is used for this purpose, while in the last two, only fibres from the plant are utilized. [[Coir]] ([[coconut]] fiber) is used in making [[twine]], and also in floormats, [[doormat]]s, [[brush]]es, [[mattress]]es, floor tiles, and [[sacking]].
[[Straw]] and [[bamboo]] are both used to make hats. Straw, a dried form of grass, is also used for stuffing, as is [[kapok]].
Fibres from [[pulpwood]] trees, cotton, [[rice paper|rice]], hemp, and [[nettle]] are used in making [[paper]].
[[Cotton]], [[flax]], [[jute]], hemp and [[Modal (textile)|modal]] are all used in clothing. [[Piña]] ([[pineapple]] fiber) and [[ramie]] are also fibres used in clothing, generally with a blend of other fabrics such as cotton.
[[cellulose acetate|Acetate]] is used to increase the shininess of certain fabrics such as [[silk]]s, [[velvet]]s, and [[taffeta]]s.
[[Seaweed]] is used in the production of textiles. A water-soluble fiber known as [[Alginic acid|alginate]] is produced and is used as a holding fiber; when the cloth is finished, the alginate is dissolved, leaving an open area
===Mineral textiles===
[[Asbestos]] and [[basalt fiber]] are used for vinyl tiles, sheeting, and adhesives, "transite" panels and siding, acoustical ceilings, stage curtains, and fire blankets.
[[Glass Fiber]] is used in the production of [[spacesuit]]s, ironing board and mattress covers, ropes and cables, reinforcement fiber for [[composite material]]s, insect netting, flame-retardant and protective fabric, soundproof, fireproof, and insulating fibers.
Metal fiber, metal foil, and metal wire have a variety of uses, including the production of cloth-of-gold and [[jewelry]]. Hardware cloth is a coarse weave of steel wire, used in construction.
===Synthetic textiles===
[[Image:Cloth 800.jpg|300px|thumb|right|A variety of contemporary fabrics. From the left: evenweave cotton, velvet, printed cotton, calico, felt, satin, silk, hessian, polycotton.]]
All synthetic textiles are used primarily in the production of clothing.
[[Polyester]] fiber is used in all types of clothing, either alone or blended with fibres such as cotton.
[[Aramid]] fiber (e.g. [[Twaron]]) is used for flame-retardant clothing, cut-protection, and armor.
[[Acrylic fiber|Acrylic]] is a fibre used to imitate wools, including cashmere, and is often used in replacement of them.
[[Nylon]] is a fibre used to imitate silk; it is used in the production of [[pantyhose]]. Thicker nylon fibers are used in [[rope]] and outdoor clothing.
[[Spandex]] (trade name ''Lycra'') is a [[polyurethane]] fibre that stretches easily and can be made tight-fitting without impeding movement. It is used to make activewear, [[bra]]s, and [[swimsuit]]s.
[[Olefin fiber]] is a fiber used in activewear, linings, and warm clothing. Olefins are hydrophobic, allowing them to dry quickly. A sintered [[felt]] of olefin fibers is sold under the trade name [[Tyvek]].
[[Ingeo]] is a [[polylactide]] fiber blended with other fibres such as cotton and used in clothing. It is more hydrophilic than most other synthetics, allowing it to wick away perspiration.
[[Lurex (yarn)|Lurex]] is a metallic fiber used in clothing embellishment.
==Production methods==
{{main|textile manufacturing}}
[[Image:GuatemalaWeavings79.jpg|right|300px|thumb|Brilliantly dyed traditional woven textiles of [[Guatemala]], and woman weaving on a backstrap loom.]]
[[Weaving]] is a textile production method which involves interlacing a set of longer [[Yarn|threads]] (called the [[warp (weaving)|warp]]) with a set of crossing threads (called the [[weft]]). This is done on a frame or machine known as a [[loom]], of which there are a number of types. Some weaving is still done by hand, but the vast majority is mechanised.
[[Knitting]] and [[crochet]]ing involve interlacing loops of [[yarn]], which are formed either on a [[knitting needle]] or on a [[crochet hook]], together in a line. The two processes are different in that knitting has several active loops at one time, on the knitting needle waiting to interlock with another loop, while crocheting never has more than one active loop on the needle.
[[Braid]]ing or [[plait]]ing involves twisting threads together into cloth. Knotting involves tying threads together and is used in making [[macrame]].
[[Lace]] is made by interlocking threads together independently, using a backing and any of the methods described above, to create a fine fabric with open holes in the work. Lace can be made by either hand or machine.
[[Carpet]]s, [[rug]]s, [[velvet]], [[velour]], and [[velveteen]], are made by interlacing a secondary yarn through woven cloth, creating a tufted layer known as a nap or pile.
[[Felt]]ing involves pressing a mat of fibers together, and working them together until they become tangled. A liquid, such as soapy water, is usually added to lubricate the fibers, and to open up the microscopic scales on strands of wool.
[[Image:Tartan Clan Campbell.png|left|thumb|150px|Woven tartan of [[Clan Campbell]], [[Scotland]].]]Textiles are often [[dyeing|dyed]], with fabrics available in almost every colour. Coloured designs in textiles can be created by weaving together fibres of different colours ([[tartan]] or [[Uzbek Ikat]]), adding coloured stitches to finished fabric ([[embroidery]]), creating patterns by [[resist dyeing]] methods, tying off areas of cloth and dyeing the rest ([[tie-dyeing|tie-dye]]), or drawing wax designs on cloth and dyeing in between them ([[batik]]), or using various printing processes on finished fabric. [[Woodblock printing]], still used in India and elsewhere today, is the oldest of these dating back to at least 220CE in [[China]].
Textiles are also sometimes [[bleach]]ed. In this process, the original colour of the textile is removed by chemicals or exposure to sunlight, turning the textile pale or white.
Textiles are sometimes finished by [[starch]]ing, which makes the fabric stiff and less prone to wrinkles, or by [[waterproof]]ing, which makes the fabric slick and impervious to water or other liquids. Since the 1990s, finishing agents have been used to strengthen fabrics and make them wrinkle free. [http://ask.yahoo.com/ask/20010315.html]
==See also==
* [[Textile preservation]]
* [[Textile manufacturing]]
* [[Textile manufacturing terminology]]
* [[Timeline of clothing and textiles technology]]
* [[Textile printing]]
<references />
*Good, Irene. 2006. "Textiles as a Medium of Exchange in Third Millennium B.C.E. Western Asia." In: ''Contact and Exchange in the Ancient World''. Edited by Victor H. Mair. University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu. Pages 191-214. ISBN 978-0824828844
*Fisher, Nora (Curator Emirta, Textiles & Costumes), [[Museum of International Folk Art]]. "Rio Grande Textiles." Introduction by Teresa Archuleta-Sagel. 196 pages with 125 black and white as well as color plates, Museum of New Mexico Press, Paperbound.
*David H. Abrahams, "Textile chemistry", McGraw Hill Encyclopedia of Science -- available in ''AccessScience@McGraw-Hill'', [http://www.accessscience.com, DOI 10.1036/1097-8542.687500], last modified: February 21, 2007.] (Subscription access)
== External links ==
* [http://www.emergingtextiles.com Global Textile and Clothing Trade] Textile and Clothing Information and Reporting.
* [http://www.moifa.org The Museum of International Folk Art]
* [http://www.cs.arizona.edu/patterns/weaving/weavedocs.html Weaving document archive]
* [http://www.textile.fr:81/site/home_en.asp union of textile industries]
* [http://people.cornell.edu/pages/jh433/ Textiles Nanotechnology Laboratory] at [[Cornell University]]
* [http://www.matlexikon.de Compact informations about materials] German textile site.
* [http://www.textile-technology.com Textile Technology - Textile Machinery, News and Directory]
* [http://www.tex.in Tex.in - Textile & Apparel Directory & WWW Database]
* {{cite web |publisher= [[Victoria and Albert Museum]]
|url= http://www.vam.ac.uk/vastatic/microsites/british_galleries/designa/textile/textile.html
|title= Design a Textile
|accessdate= 2007-09-03}}
{{textile arts}}
[[Category:Recyclable materials]]
[[it:Tessuto (manufatto)]]