Béda révisi "Transduser"

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(Kaca anyar: en:transducer)
 
'''Transduser''' nyaéta hiji devais [[éléktrik]], [[éléktronik]], [[éléktro-mékanik]], [[éléktromagnetik]], [[fotonik]], atawa [[fotovoltaik]] nu bisa ngarubah wangun [[énérji]] kana wangun énérji séjénna. Ku sipatna ieu, transduser dipaké pikeun mindahkeun informasi atawa ngukur, conto [[sénsor tekanan]]. Dina widang séjén, transduser disebut ogé salaku devais nu bisa ngonversi sinyal tina hiji bentuk ka bentuk séjén, contona [[spiker]] [[audio]] anu ngarubah variasi tegangan listrik jadi sora (énerji akustik).
[[en:transducer]]
 
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==Types of transducers==
This list is confined to the narrower definition of the term.
 
*Electromagnetic:
**[[Antenna (radio)|Antenna]] - converts electromagnetic waves into electric current and vice versa.
**[[Cathode ray tube]] (CRT) - converts electrical signals into visual form
**[[Fluorescent lamp]], [[light bulb]] - converts electrical power into visible light
**[[Magnetic cartridge]] - converts motion into electrical form
**[[Photocell]] or [[light-dependent resistor]] (LDR) - converts changes in light levels into resistance changes
**[[Tape head]] - converts changing magnetic fields into electrical form
**[[Hall effect sensor]] - converts a magnetic field level into electrical form
*Electrochemical:
**[[pH meter|pH probe]]
**[[Electro-galvanic fuel cell]]
*Electromechanical (electromechanical output devices are generically called [[actuator]]s):
**[[Electroactive polymers]]
**[[Galvanometer]]
**[[MEMS]]
**[[Electric motor|Rotary motor]], [[linear motor]]
**[[Vibration powered generator]]
**[[Potentiometer]] when used for measuring position
**[[Load cell]] converts force to mV/V electrical signal using [[strain gauge]]s
**[[Accelerometer]]
**[[Strain gauge]]
**[[String Potentiometer]]
**[[Air flow sensor]]
*Electroacoustic:
**[[Geophone]] - converts ground movement (displacement) into voltage
**[[Phonograph|Gramophone pick-up]]
**[[Hydrophone]] - converts changes in water pressure into an electrical form
**[[Loudspeaker]], [[earphone]] - converts changes in electrical signals into acoustic form
**[[Microphone]] - converts changes in air pressure into an electrical signal
**[[Piezoelectricity|Piezoelectric crystal]] - converts pressure changes into electrical form
**[[Tactile transducer]]
*[[Photoelectric effect|Photoelectric]]:
**[[Laser diode]], [[light-emitting diode]] - convert electrical power into forms of light
**[[Photodiode]], [[photoresistor]], [[phototransistor]], [[photomultiplier]] tube - converts changing light levels into electrical form
*Electrostatic:
**[[Electrometer]]
*Thermoelectric:
**[[Resistance temperature detector|RTD]] Resistance Temperature Detector
**[[Thermocouple]]
**[[Peltier cooler]]
**[[Thermistor]] (includes PTC resistor and NTC resistor)
*Radioacoustic:
**[[Geiger-Müller tube]] used for measuring radioactivity.
**[[Receiver (radio)]]
 
==Info-acoustic transducers==
Info-acoustic transducers are transducers which convert information to sound, or sound to information. Typically, but not necessarily, the information is represented as an electrical signal.
 
There are four broad categories of info-acoustic transducers which may be categorized according to the [[state of matter]] in which they operate:
 
===Tabular overview of info-acoustic transducers===
{| class="wikitable"
|-
| [[State of matter]]: || [[Solid]] || [[Liquid]] || [[Gas]] || [[Plasma]] || [[Ideas/Informatics]]
|-
| Transducer: || [[Geophone]] || [[Hydrophone]] || [[Microphone]]/[[Loudspeaker]] || [[Ionophone]] || Informatic transducer
|-
| Classical Element: || [[Earth]] || [[Water]] || [[Air]] || [[Fire]] || [[Idea]]
|-
| Greek: || [[Geo]]/[[Gaia]] || [[Hydro]]/[[Hydor]] || [[Aero]] || [[Pyro]]/[[Ion]](ἰόν) ||
|-
| Latin: || || || || || [[Quintessence]] (fifth-element)
|}
 
===Acoustic impedance of info-acoustic transducers===
Since plasma is a gas or gaslike medium of charged particles, it has an acoustic impedance similar to that of gas such as air, thus ionophones can be used as microphones and loudspeakers.
 
Water is much more dense than air (about 1000 times more dense) so hydrophones do not make very good microphones, and likewise microphones (even if made waterproof) do not work well in water. However, geophones and hydrophones can sometimes produce acceptable results when interchanged, notwithstanding the fact that hydrophones respond to pressure but geophones respond to the derivative (i.e. can't respond all the way down to DC).
 
==See also==
*[[Finite state transducer]]
*[[Ultrasonic transducer]]
*[[Signal transduction]]
 
==References==
* J. Allocca and A. Stuart, ''Transducers: Theory and Application'', Reston 1984.
 
==External links==
{{Commonscat|Transducers}}
*[http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-transducers.htm What are Transducers?]
*[http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/0,,sid9_gci213215,00.html whatis: transducer]
*[http://www.its.bldrdoc.gov/fs-1037/dir-037/_5539.htm Federal Standard 1037C, August 7, 1996: transducer]
*[http://www.atis.org/tg2k/_transducer.html American National Standard for Telecommunications - Telecom Glossary 2000: transducer]
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[[Category:Transducers| ]]
 
[[bn:পরিবর্তক]]
[[da:Transducer]]
[[de:Sensor]]
[[en:Transducer]]
[[es:Transductor]]
[[fr:Transducteur]]
[[it:Trasduttore]]
[[he:מתמר]]
[[nl:Transducent]]
[[ja:トランスデューサー]]
[[nn:Transdusar]]
[[pt:Transdutor]]
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