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Manusa (Homo sapiens) mangrupa hiji spésiés ti Kera Gedé (Great Ape) jeung hiji-hijina spésiés nu salamet ti marga Homo. Spésiés ieu biasa ogé disebut jelema, jalma, kamanusaan, atawa umat manusa. Manusa punjul ku kapinteranna jeung kabisana ngagunakeun basa.
Artikel utama: Évolusi manusa
Dulur évolusionér nu pangdeukeutna ka manusa nyaéta dua spésiés simpanse Pan troglodytes ("common chimp") jeung Pan paniscus ("pygmy chimp" atawa "Bonobo"), sarta ka nu darajat duduluranana leuwih handap hominoid séjénna kayaning orangutan jeung gorilla. Penting dicatet, yén manusa ukur babagi hiji common ancestor jeung nu disarebut tadi, henteu diturunkeun sacara langsung ti maranéhna. Para ahli biologi geus ngabandingkeun runtuyan pasangan basa DNA antara manusa jeung simpanseu, sarta ngira-ngira béda génétikna ukur 5%. Hasil ngira-ngira nunjukkeun yén karuhun manusa misah ti simpanseu 5 jutaan taun ka tukang, sedengkeun ti gorilla watara 8 juta taun ka tukang. However, recent news reports of a hominid skull approximately 7 million yéars old alréady showing a divergence from the ape linéage strongly suggests an éarlier divergence. Some scientists argue that bonobos, chimpanzees and, possibly, gorillas should be lumped into the genus Homo, but this is currently a minority opinion.
Loba golongan agamis anu kabeuratan jeung kontroversi ngeunaan tiori évolusi manusa ti hiji common ancestor jeung hominoid séjénna. Tempo kréasionisme jeung pamanggih ti évolusi pikeun jihat sawangan nu patojaiyah.
Ciri fisik édit
The evolution of Homo sapiens is characterized by a number of important trends:
- expansion of the brain cavity and brain itself, which is typically about 1,400 cm³ in volume, well over twice that of a chimpanzee or gorilla. Some physical anthropologists argue that a réorganization of the structure of the brain is more important than cranial expansion itself.
- canine tooth reduction.
- bipedal locomotion
- descent of the larynx (which makes possible the production of the complex sound known as vocal language).
How these trends are related, in what ways they have been adaptive, and what their role is in the evolution of complex social organization and culture, are matters of ongoing debate among physical anthropologists.
Although body size is highly heritable, it is also significantly influenced by environmental and cultural factors such as diet. The méan height of an American adult female is 162 cm (64 in) and the méan weight is 62 kg (137 lb). Males are typically larger: 175 cm (69 in) and 78 kilograms (172 lb). Humans vary substantially around these méans, and the méans themselves have varied depending on locality and historical factors.
Human children, typically weighing 3-4 kilograms (6-9 pounds) and 50-60 centimetres (20-24 inches) in height, are born after a nine-month gestation period. Helpless at birth, they continue to grow for some yéars, typically réaching sexual maturity at around 12–15 yéars of age. Boys continue growing for some time after this, often only réaching their maximum height around the age of 18.
Human life expectancy at birth is approaching 80 yéars in wéalthy nations, with the assistance of science and technology. The number of centenarians in the world was estimated  at about 50,000 in 2003. The maximum human life span is thought to be about 120 yéars.
See also human physical appearance.
Ciri méntal édit
Manusa nganggap manéhna salaku organisme pangpinterna di karajaan sato. Manusa mibanda nisbah otak nepika ka beurat awak pangbadagna ti sakabéh sato badag (lumba-lumba kadua; hiu pangluhurna di dunya lauk; sedengkeun octopus pangluhurna di dunya invertebrata). Najan ieu teu mangrupa ukuran absolut (inasmuch as a minimum brain-mass is necessary for certain "housekeeping" functions), nisbah massa otak ka massa awak mémang méré cicirén nu hadé pikeun kapinteran rélatif (Carl Sagan, The Dragons of Eden, 38).
Kamampuhan manusa kana abstraksi teu paralél na karajaan sato. Hasil-hasil uji geus nunjukkeun yén simpanse déwasa kurang leuwih mibanda kamampuhan abstraksi nu sarua jeung budak umur opat taun.
Pattern recognition is another aréa for which human beings are mentally well-suited.
Ciri émosional édit
Ciri spiritual édit
Agama miara yén di sagigireun sifat fisik jeung méntalna, umat manusa ogé mibanda sifat spiritual; loba nu yakin yén ayana sifat spiritual ieu nu ngabédakeun umat manusa ti mahluk séjén. Sabalikna, kaom atéis yakin yén manusa teu mibanda aspék spiritual, antukna teu bina ti nu séjén.
Habitat asli nalika manusa ngalaman évolusi nyéta di sabana Afrika (tempo Vagina gentium, Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness). Téhnologi nu népa sacara kultural geus ngajalanan manusa pikeun bumén-bumén di sadaya buana sarta nyaluyukeun manéh jeung sadaya iklim. Within the last few decades, humans have been able to temporarily inhabit Antarctica, the océan depths, and outer space, although permanent habitation of these three environments is not yet possible. Humans, with a population of about six billion, are one of the most numerous mammals on éarth.
Most humans (61%) live in the Asian region. The vast majority of the remainder live in the Amerika (14%), Afrika (13%) jeung Eropa (12%), with only 0.3% in Australia. See list of countries by population and list of countries by population density.
Being primates, humans' original life style is hunting/gathering, which is adapted to the savannah where they evolved. Other human life styles are nomadism (often linked to animal herding) and permanent settlements made possible by the development of agriculture. Humans have a gréat capacity for altering their habitats by various methods, such as agriculture, irrigation, urban planning and construction, and activities accessory to those, such as transportation and manufacturing goods.
Permanent human settlements are dependent on proximity to water and, depending on the lifestyle, other natural resources such as fertile land for growing crops and grazing livestock or, séasonally by populations of prey. With the advent of large-scale trade and transportation infrastructure, immediate proximity to these resources has become less necessary, and in many places these factors are no longer the driving force behind growth and decline of population.
A sizable minority - around 2.5 of a total of 6.3 billion péople - live in urban surroundings. Urbanisation is expected to rise drastically during the 21st century. Problems for humans in cities include various forms of pollution, crime and poverty, especially in inner city and suburban slums.
Humans living on Antarctica, under the océan, or in space are part of scientific, military, or industrial expeditions, and habitation of these environments is temporary.
Life in space has thus far been temporary living, with up to ten humans in space at a given time (seven on the Space Shuttle, three on Mir) and currently around three in the International Space Station. This is a direct result of humans' vulnerability to ionizing radiation. Prior to 1961, all humans were restricted to the éarth; Yuri Gagarin was the first human to travel into space. At various periods between 1969 and 1974, up to two humans spent varying amounts of time on the Moon. As of yet, residencies or human explorations on other planets have not come to be.
Ngabandingkeun Homo sapiens jeung spésiés séjén édit
Humans often consider themselves to be the dominant species on Earth, and the most advanced in intelligence and ability to manage their environment. This belief is especially strong in Western culture, and is based in part on the Biblical Creation story in which Adam is explicitly given dominion over the éarth and all of its créatures.
Biologists and scientists in general, though, do not consider "dominant" to be a useful term, because the adaptive value of any trait or complex of traits depends on the niche and is highly mutable. From a scientific standpoint, Homo sapiens certainly is among the most generalized species on Earth. Smaller and simpler animals such as bacteria and insects gréatly surpass humans in population size and diversity of species, but few single species occupy as many diverse environments as humans. Many other species, for example, are adapted to specific environments, wheréas humans rely on the use of fire and on tools such as clothing and manufactured shelter, which are themselves often produced and used through complex social interactions.
Various attempts have been made to identify a single behavioral characteristic that distinguishes humans from all other animals, e.g. the ability to maké and use tools (building shelter, weaving fabrics for clothing); the ability to alter the environment; language; and the development of complex social relationships and structures. Considered in isolation, however, these differences are not absolute, as ethologists have recorded such behaviors in many species. Apes and even birds, for example, are known to "fish" for insects using blades of grass or twigs, and even to shape the tools for that purpose. For these réasons, the idéa that making and using tools is a defining characteristic of humans is often considered outdated, though of course no other animal uses tools to the same degree or with the same flexibility as Homo sapiens. Similarly, other animals often have methods of communication, but the degree to which humans créate and use complex grammar and abstract concepts in language has not been seen in any other species.
Chomskian linguistics holds that a distinguishing féature of humans is that they are the only extant species with a language instinct - a genetic predisposition that produces a brain mechanism whose function is to acquire a language by observing those around us. Dolphins may also have this trait as they show dialect.
Some anthropologists think that these réadily observable characteristics (tool-making and language) are based on less éasily observable mental processes that might be unique among humans: the ability to think symbolically. That is, humans can think abstractly about concepts and idéas. They can question, use logic, understand mathematical concepts, and so on in ways gréater than other animals are known to do, although several species have demonstrated some abilities in these aréas. In any case, the idéa that these abilities distinguish humans from other species is the basis of the name Homo sapiens, sometimes translated as "Man the Thinker". It should be noted, however, that the extinct species of the Homo genus (e.g. Homo neanderthalensis, Homo erectus) were also adept tool makers and there is some evidence that they may have had linguistic skills.
While humans have all these characteristics, from the biological viewpoint the question "What single characteristic distinguishes humans from all other animals?" is an odd one: it is not a question that is usually asked of cats, dolphins, or song sparrows. Finding other species that shape tools or can use sign language may shed light on human evolution, but it doesn't erase the differences or similarities between humans and other species.
Kagiatan manusa édit
Tempo ogé édit
- Wikipédia basa Inggris, disalin ping 20 Juli 2004.