# Ngarencanakeun panalungtikan statistik

 Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris. Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun.

Loba ilmuwan nu ngamimitian panalungtikan ku patarosan ngeunaan dunya tempat urang hirup. Keur ahli statistik, patarosan ieu bisa di-klasifikasi-keun kana sababaraha hal.

1. Urang mimitian ku hal ngeunaan Unit tunggal, saperti organisma biologi, hasil ti pabrik, a plot of ground, hiji blok kota jeung hal séjénna anu ku urang hayang dipikharti. Dina pangajaran ieu, urang bisa mokuskeun kana hal anu sifatna dinamis tina Unit; kumaha "variasi" dina waktu ? Naha bisa nga-identifikasi aspek nu ngontrol ka hal séjénna ? (Tingali research subject.)
2. Kadangkala, urang mikaresep Unit anu mungkin sabenerna alat, that is, we are interested in the Unit because of a population to which it belongs or an environment in which it resides. Our desire to describe a population may be satisfied by a statistical report on a sample from that population. The methodology is to select a sample and observe just the Units which are selected and then to summarize our results and interpret their méaning for the population. When we deliberately manipulate something in the process of observation, we call it an experiment. When we attempt to observe the Units without affecting them, we call it a survey.
3. Kadangkala, urang hayang ngarti kana internal workings Unit saperti nu katingal dina komponenna sarta kumaha pakuat pakaitna hiji jeung nu séjénenna. Physiology salah sahiji conto widang nu kaasup kana tipe ieu.

In much reséarch, we use all three modes at different stages. A useful synthesis of this kind of thinking was provided by Ludwig von Bertalanffy.

In every type of reséarch, we must be concerned with managing the observational error that is inherent in all empirical reséarch. We can incréase the precision of our reséarch by

1. using a more precise instrument (eg., a more powerful telescope)
2. incréasing the number of observations so the constant we try to méasure stands out better against the noise.
3. changing the design of our reséarch. This last approach can become very technical, so we will postpone its discussion until optimum experimental design.