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Asia Tenggara ngawengku dua wewengkon geografis: Asia daratan, jeung [[island arc]] katut [[kapuloan]] nu aya di wetan jeung wetan kiduleunnana. Bagean [[Indochina|daratan]] kaasup [[Kamboja]], [[Laos]], [[Myanmar]], [[Thailand]] jeung [[Vietnam]]; nu populasina utamana [[urang Tai]] jeung [[basa Austro-Asiatik|urang Austroasiatik]]; ageman nu dominan nyaeta [[Buda]], tuluy [[Islam]]. Bagean [[Asia Tenggara Maritim|maritim]] kaasup [[Brunei]], [[Timor Wetan]],<ref>[http://www.un.org/depts/dhl/maplib/worldregions.htm United Nations]</ref> [[Indonesia]], [[Malaysia]], [[Pilipina]] jeung [[Singapura]]. [[Urang Austronesia]] nu panglobana aya di wewengkon ieu; ageman nu dominan nyaeta [[Islam]],tuluy [[Kristen]]{{Fact|date=December 2007}}.
== Babagian ==
=== Pulitis ===
Asia Tenggara mindeng nujul kana hiji wewengkon nu ngawengku nagara-nagara di handap ieu, sok sanajan ari dina prak-prakannana mah, boh sacara umum atawa husus, wewengkonna bisa leuwih heureut atawa leuwih lega.
Although politically external territories of Australia, [[Christmas Island]] and the [[Cocos (Keeling) Islands]] are culturally part of Southeast Asia. Meanwhile, certain [[South China Sea Islands|islands in the South China Sea]] are currently disputed. [[Papua]], however, is politically part of Southeast Asia through Indonesia, although geographically it is often considered as part of [[Oceania]].
=== Geograpis ===
[[ImageGambar:LocationSoutheastAsia.PNG|285px|thumb|right|Lokasi Asia Tenggara.<ref> This map primarily indicates ASEAN member countries, and therefore does not mark the [[Andaman and Nicobar Islands]], which are also geographically a part of Southeast Asia. </ref>]]
Southeast Asia is geographically divided into two regions, namely [[Mainland Southeast Asia]] (or [[Indochina]]) and the [[Maritime Southeast Asia]] (or the [[Malay Archipelago]] [[Malay language|Malay]]: ''[[Nusantara]]).
* [[Singapura]]
[[ImageGambar:Mayon1984.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Gunung seuneun Mayon.]]
Malaysia is divided by the [[South China Sea]]. [[Peninsular Malaysia]] is on the mainland while [[East Malaysia]] is on [[Borneo]], the largest island in the region. However, Malaysia is often considered an archipelagic nation. Also, the eastern parts of Indonesia and East Timor (east of Wallace line) are considered to be geographically parts of Oceania.
[[ImageGambar:Mount Kinabalu.jpg|right|200px|thumbnail|Gunung Kinabalu.]]
The [[Andaman and Nicobar Islands]] of India are considered part of Southeast Asia. [[Hainan Island]] is sometimes considered both East Asian and Southeast Asian.
== Sajarah ==
{{Main|Sajarah Asia Tenggara}}
[[ImageGambar:Borom That Chaiya.jpg|thumb|upright|Arsitektur dina gaya [[Sriwijaya]].]]
Solheim and others have shown evidence for a ''Nusantao'' (''Nusantara'') maritime trading network ranging from [[Vietnam]] to the rest of the archipelago as early as [[5000 BCE]] to [[1 CE]].<ref>Solheim, ''Journal of East Asian Archaeology'', 2000, '''2''':1-2, pp. 273-284(12)
In Mainland South East Asia, Myanmar, Cambodia and Thailand retained the Theravada form of Buddhism, brought to them from Sri Lanka. This type of Buddhism was fused with the Hindu-influenced Khmer culture.
=== Indianized kingdom ===
{{main|Indianized kingdom}}
Very little is known about Southeast Asian religious beliefs and practices before the advent of Indian merchants and religious influences from the second century BCE onwards. Prior to the [[13th century]], [[Buddhism]] and [[Hinduism]] were the main religions in Southeast Asia.
The [[Cholas]] excelled in maritime activity in both military and the mercantile fields. Their raids of [[Kedah]] and the [[Srivijaya]], and their continued commercial contacts with the [[Chinese Empire]], enabled them to influence the local cultures. Many of the surviving examples of the [[Hinduism in Southeast Asia|Hindu cultural influence]] found today throughout the Southeast Asia are the result of the Chola expeditions.<ref name="prambanan">The great temple complex at [[Prambanan]] in [[Indonesia]] exhibit a number of similarities with the South Indian architecture. See Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. ''The CōĻas'', 1935 pp 709 </ref>
=== Perdagangan Cina ===
{{see also|List of tributaries of Imperial China}}
Chinese merchants have traded with the region for a long time as evidence of Magellan's voyage records that [[Brunei]] possessed more [[cannon]] than the European ships so it appears that the Chinese fortified them.<ref name="Bergreen.L_Magellan"/>
The strategic value of the [[Strait of Malacca]], which was controlled by [[Sultanate of Malacca]] in the 15th and early 16th century, did not go unnoticed by [[Portuguese people|Portuguese]] writer [[Duarte Barbosa]], who in 1500 wrote ''"He who is lord of Malacca has his hand on the throat of [[Venice]]".''
[[ImageGambar:StraitOfMalacca2.jpg|thumb|right|[[Strait of Malacca]], (narrows).]]
=== Western colonization ===
{{see also|Imperialism in Asia|The Ugly American}}
[[Western world|Western]] influence started to enter in the [[1500s]], with the arrival of the Portuguese and Spanish in [[Moluccas]] and the [[Philippines]].
China traded a lot of rice.
=== Kiwari ===
{{See also|Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere|Japanese foreign policy in Southeast Asia}}
Regional integration through [[ASEAN]] is one of the goals of Southeast Asian countries today.
Currently, there are various conflicting territorial and/or maritime claims, both among these countries and even involving other parties (notably both Chinas in the case of the [[Spratly Islands]]).
== Geograpi ==
[[ImageGambar:Ha Long Bay with boats.JPG|thumbnail|[[Halong Bay|Hạ Long Bay]], a Natural World's Heritage Site in [[Vietnam]]]]
{{See also|Golden Triangle (Southeast Asia)|List of Southeast Asian mountains}}
Geologically, the [[Malay archipelago]] is one of the most active [[vulcanology|vulcanological]] regions in the world. [[Geology|Geological]] [[Tectonic uplift|upliftuplifts]]s in the region have also produced some impressive mountains, culminating in [[Mount Kinabalu]] in [[Sabah]], Malaysia on the island of Borneo with a height of 4,101 metres (13,455 [[foot (unit of length)|ft]]) and also [[Puncak Jaya]] in [[Papua]], Indonesia at 4,884 metres (16,024 ft), on the island of [[New Guinea]].
=== Sabudeureun ===
{{See also|Austronesia}}
The [[Australasia]]n [[continental plate]] defines a region adjacent to Southeast Asia, which is also politically separated from the countries of Southeast Asia. But a cultural touch point lies between [[Papua New Guinea]] and the Indonesian region of [[Papua]], which shares the island of [[New Guinea]] with Papua New Guinea. A considerable colonization effort of Papua is underway. o
=== Iklim ===
The climate of Southeast Asia is mainly tropical – hot and humid all year round. There is a lot of rainfall. Southeast Asia has a wet and dry season caused by seasonal shift in winds or [[monsoon]]. The [[tropical rain belt]] causes additional rainfall during the monsoon season. The rain forest is the second largest on earth (with the Amazon being the largest). Exception to this type of climate and vegetation is the mountain areas in the northern region, where high altitudes lead to milder temperatures and drier landscape.
=== Lingkungan ===
{{See also|Southeast Asian coral reefs|Gurat Wallac}}
[[ImageGambar:Indonesia-Bull.jpg|thumb|upright|right|Munding cai.]]
[[ImageGambar:Wallace's line.jpg|thumb|right|Wallace's hypothetical line between Australasian and Southeast Asian fauna.]]
The animals of Southeast Asia are diverse; on the islands of [[Borneo]] and [[Sumatra]], the [[Orangutan]] (man of the forest), the [[Asian Elephant]], the Malayan [[tapir]], the [[Sumatran Rhinoceros]] and the [[Bornean Clouded Leopard]] can be also found. The [[bearcat]] can be found on the island of [[Palawan]].
The Indonesian Archipelago is split by the [[Wallace Line]]. This line runs along what is now known to be a tectonic plate boundary, and separates Asian (Western) species from Australasian (Eastern) species. The islands between Java/Borneo and Papua form a mixed zone, where both types occur, known as Wallacea.
[[ImageGambar:Doppelhornvogel-09.jpg|upright|thumb|left|[[Great Hornbill]] - bird from Southeast Asia]]
The shallow waters of the [[Southeast Asian coral reefs]] have the highest levels of [[biodiversity]] for the world's marine ecosystems, where coral, fish and molluscs abound. The [[whale shark]] can be found in the [[South China Sea]].
While Southeast Asia is rich in flora and fauna, Southeast Asia is facing severe [[deforestation]] which causes habitat loss for various [[endangered species]] such as orangutan and the Sumatran tiger. At the same time, [[haze]] has been a regular occurrence. The worst regional haze occurred in 1998 in which multiple countries were covered with thick haze. In reaction, several countries in Southeast Asia signed the [[ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution]] in order to combat haze pollution.
== Ekonomi ==
The region is also one of the most productive in manufacturing [[microprocessor]]s. Reserves of [[Petroleum|oil]] are also present in the region.
Seventeen telecommunications companies have contracted to build a new submarine cable to connect Southeast Asia to the U.S.<ref>{{cite web |author=Sean Yoong |title=17 Firms to Build $500M Undersea Cable |publisher=International Business Times |date=April 27, 2007 |url=http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/20070427/malaysia-undersea-cable.htm |accessdate=2007-07-28 }}</ref> This is to avoid the disruption caused by the cutting of the undersea cable from Taiwan to the U.S. in a recent earthquake.
== Demograpi ==
Southeast Asia has an area of approx. 4,000,000 km² (1.6 million sq miles). [[As of 2004]], more than 593 million people lived in the region, more than a fifth of them (125 million) on the Indonesian island of [[Java (island)|Java]], the most densely populated large island in the world. The distribution of the religions and people is diverse in Southeast Asia and varies by country. Some 30 million [[overseas Chinese]] also live in Southeast Asia, most prominently in [[Christmas Island]], [[Malaysia]], [[Singapura]], [[Indonesia]] jeung [[Thailand]], sarta oge, [[Hoa]], di [[Vietnam]].
=== Golongan seler ===
{{See also|urang Austronesia|kelompok etnik Cina|urang Erasia (mixed ancestry)|urang Filipina|Malayu (kelompok etnik)|Negrito|urang Tai|urang Amerika Asia Tenggara}}
There are also large pockets of intermarriage between indigenous Southeast Asians and those of Chinese descent. They form a substantial part of everyday life in countries such as [[Thailand]] and the [[Philippines]]. Indonesia and Malaysia also has a few mixed Southeast Asian-Chinese populations.
=== Ageman ===
{{refimprove|section|date=May 2007}}
{{See also|Theravada|Hinduism in Southeast Asia|Islam in Southeast Asia}}
Religions and peoples are diverse in Southeast Asia and not one country is homogeneous. In the world's most populous Muslim nation, Indonesia, Hinduism is dominant on islands such as [[Bali]]. Christianity also predominates in [[Philippines]], [[Papua]] and [[Timor]]. Pockets of Hindu population can also be found around Southeast Asia in Singapore, Malaysia etc. [[Garuda]] (Sanskrit: Garuḍa), the [[Phoenix (mythology)|phoenix]] who is the mount (vahanam) of [[Vishnu]], is a national symbol in both [[Thailand]] and [[Indonesia]]; in the [[Philippines]], gold images of Garuda have been found on [[Palawan]]; gold images of other Hindu gods and goddesses have also been found on [[Mindanao]]. Balinese Hinduism is somewhat different from Hinduism practised elsewhere, as Animism and local culture is incorporated into it. Christians can also be found throughout Southeast Asia; they are in the majority in East Timor and the Philippines, Asia's largest Christian nation. In addition, there are also older tribal religious practices in remote areas of [[Sarawak]] in East Malaysia and [[Papua]] in eastern Indonesia. In Myanmar, Sakka ([[Indra]]) is revered as a ''[[nat (spirit)|nat]]''. In Vietnam, Mahayana Buddhism is practiced, which is influenced by native animism but with strong emphasis on [[Ancestor Worship]].
=== Basa ===
{{See also|basa Austrik|Austro-Asiatic languages|Austronesian languages|Hmong-Mien languages|Sino-Tibetan languages|Tai-Kadai languages}}
== Budaya ==
{{See also|Southeast Asian cinema|Southeast Asian Games|Southeast Asian music}}
[[ImageGambar:Rice Terraces Banaue.jpg|thumb|The Banaue Rice Terraces in Luzon Island, Philippines.]]
[[Rice paddy]] agriculture has existed in Southeast Asia for thousands of years, ranging across the subregion. Some dramatic examples of these rice paddies populate the [[Banaue Rice Terraces]] in the mountains of [[Luzon]] in the Philippines. Maintenance of these paddies is very labor-intensive. The rice paddies are well-suited to the monsoon climate of the region.
The region has diverse metalworking. This include weaponry, such as the distinctive [[Kris]], and musical instruments, such as the [[gamelan]].
=== Pangaruh ===
{| align="left" class="wikitable"
[[Buddhist calendar|Buddhist]] <br />
[[Traditional calendar of Myanmar|Burmese]] <br />
[[Chinese calendar|Chinese]] <br />
[[Gregorian calendar]]<br />
[[Hindu calendar|Hindu]] <br />
[[Indonesian calendars|Indonesian]] <br />
[[Tabular Islamic calendar|Islamic]] <br />
[[Thai lunar calendar|Thai (lunar)]] <br />
[[Thai solar calendar|Thai (solar)]] <br />
As a rule, the peoples who ate with their fingers were more likely influenced by the culture of India, for example, than the culture of China, where the peoples first ate with [[chopstick]]s; [[tea]], as a beverage, can be found across the region. The [[fish sauce]]s distinctive to the region tend to vary.
=== Seni ===
[[ImageGambar:Mục đồng thổi sáo.JPG|thumbnail|upright|"Buffalo boy plays a flute", [[Dong Ho Painting|Đông Hồ painting]], [[Vietnam]].]]
Dance in much of Southeast Asia also includes movement of the hands, as well as the feet. Puppetry and shadow plays were also a favoured form of entertainment in past centuries. The Arts and Literature in some of South East Asia is quite influenced by Hinduism brought to them centuries ago.
[[:Category:Cambodian cuisine|Cambodia]]<br />
[[:Category:Indonesian cuisine|Indonesia]]<br />
[[Cuisine of Laos|Laos]]<br />
[[:Category:Malaysian cuisine|Malaysia]]<br />
[[Burmese cuisine|Myanmar]]<br />
[[:Category:Filipino cuisine|Philippines]]<br />
[[:Category:Singaporean cuisine|Singapore]]<br />
[[:Category:Thai cuisine|Thailand]]<br />
[[:Category:Vietnamese cuisine|Vietnam]]<br />
==== Tulisan ====
{{Main|Baybayin|Jawi (script)|S.E.A. Write Award|Thai alphabet|}}
[[ImageGambar:101 1048.jpg|thumb|right|Balinese writing on palm leaf. Artifacts can be seen in the [[Field Museum]], [[Chicago]], [[Illinois]].]]
The history of Southeast Asia has led to a wealth of different authors, from both within and without writing about the region.
Originally, [[Culture of India|IndiaIndians]]ns were the ones who taught the native inhabitants about writing. This is shown through [[Brahmic family|Brahmic]] forms of writing present in the region such as the [[Balinese script]] shown on split palm leaf called ''lontar'', right:
The antiquity of this form of writing extends before the invention of paper circa [[100]], in [[China]]. Note each palm leaf section was only several lines, written longitudinally across the leaf, and bound by twine to the other sections. The outer portion was decorated. The alphabets of Southeast Asia tended to be [[abugida]]s, until the arrival of the Europeans, who used words that also ended in consonants, not just vowels. Other forms of official documents, which did not use paper, included Javanese copperplate scrolls. This would have been more durable in the tropical climate of Southeast Asia.
* [[Southeast Asian Leaders]]
== Rujukan ==
<!-- Dead note "Solheim2000": Solheim, ''Journal of East Asian Archaeology'', [[2000]], '''2''':1-2, pp. 273-284(12) -->
* Tiwari, Rajnish (2003): [http://www.rrz.uni-hamburg.de/RRZ/R.Tiwari/papers/exchange-rate.pdf ''Post-crisis Exchange Rate Regimes in Southeast Asia''] (PDF), Seminar Paper, University of Hamburg.
== Tumbu kaluar ==
* [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/reference_maps/pdf/southeast_asia.pdf Topography of Southeast Asia in detail] ([[Portable Document Format|PDF]])
* [http://www.citymayors.com/government/se_asia_government.html CityMayors.com article]
* [http://www.lib.uci.edu/libraries/collections/sea/sasian.html Southeast Asian Archive] at the University of California, Irvine.
* [http://www.lib.uci.edu/libraries/collections/sea/seaexhibit/ "Documenting the Southeast Asian Refugee Experience"], exhibit at the [[University of California, Irvine]], Library.
* [http://seasiavisions.library.cornell.edu Southeast Asia Visions, a collection of historical travel narratives] Cornell University Library Digital Collection
{{Regions of the world}}
[[CategoryKategori:Wewengkon di Asia]]
[[CategoryKategori:Asia Tenggara| ]]
[[ace:Asia Teunggara]]
[[hr:Jugoistočna Azija]]
[[hy:Հարավ-Արևելյան Ասիա]]
[[id:Asia Tenggara]]