Béda révisi "Polistiréna"

10 bita dipupus ,  3 tahun yang lalu
m
Ngarapihkeun éjahan, replaced: oge → ogé , geusan → pikeun , make → maké , dipake → dipaké (3), diantara → di antara, ea → éa, eo → éo, didieu → di dieu, naluntik → nalungtik, kalolobaan → lolobana
m (Ngarapihkeun éjahan, replaced: oge → ogé , geusan → pikeun , make → maké , dipake → dipaké (3), diantara → di antara, ea → éa, eo → éo, didieu → di dieu, naluntik → nalungtik, kalolobaan → lolobana)
[[File:Polystyrene.svg|thumb|180px|Bagiean kantétan polistirene.]]
[[File:Expanded polystyrene foam dunnage.jpg|thumb|Pamungkus tina polistyréné (Expanded)/EPS ]]
[[File:Envase de yogur.jpg|thumb| Wadah yogurt tina bahan polistyréné ]]
[[File:Polystyrol-IR.png|thumb|right|160px|Spéktrum transmisi Infrabeureum film polystyrene.]]
'''Polystyrene''' ('''PS''')/IPAc-en|ˌ|p|ɒ|l|i|ˈ|s|t|aɪ|r|iː|n /Polistiréné (PS) mangrupa polimér aromatik sintétik anu dijieun tina ''styrene monomer''. Polistiréné wujudna bisa waé padet atawa busa-na. Sipat umum polistiréné geus jelas saperti teuas, sarta rada regas. Harga tiap kilona kawilang murah. <ref name="acc">{{cite web|title=Common Plastic Resins Used in Packaging|url=http://plastics.americanchemistry.com/Education-Resources/Hands-on-Plastics/Introduction-to-Plastics-Science-Teaching-Resources/History-of-Polymers-Plastics-for-Teachers.html|work=Introduction to Plastics Science Teaching Resources|publisher=American Chemistry Council, Inc.|accessdate=24 December 2012}}</ref> Polistiréné téh aslinamah bisa hérang/transparan, tapi bisa waé maké kelir éta gumantung kabutuhan. Sok dipaké ogé pamungkus luar (seperti mungkus [[kacang]], CD, DVD jeung lain-laina), wadah (saperti "clamshell"), tutup, [[botol]], [[gelas]], jeung [[séndok]], [[garpu]] sakali paké.
<ref>[http://plastics.ulprospector.com/generics/43/polystyrene-ps ulpospector]</ref>
Hanjakalna polistiréné ieu lila pisan ancurna henteu ''biodegrade'' anu matak jadi bahan anu terus disawalakeun, pangpangna lamun ieu barang seug mah dipiceun samarangan ka susukan atawa got ieu plastik tangtuna bakal ngajadikeun hiji sabab banjir. Lantaran bisa mengpetan liang [[cai]].
 
==Sajarah==
Polystyrene/polistiréné kapanggih ku [[Eduard Simon]] dina taun [[1839]],<ref>[http://inventors.about.com/od/pstartinventions/a/plastics.htm The history of plastics]. Inventors.about.com (15 June 2010). Retrieved 25 December 2011.</ref> saurang apotékér ti [[Bérlin]]. Di storax ti [[Turki]], manéhna nyuling/ ''distilled résin'' anu asalna tina geutah tangkal sweetgum orientalis anu ngandung minyak, anu hasilna dibéré ngaran styrol. Sababaraha poé tiharita ieu Simon manggihan yén styrol jadi jelly/ngageblég ku alatan aya oksida ("Styroloxyd"). Saterusna kimiawan [[John Buddle Blyth]] anu lahir [[1845]] jeung ahli [[kimia]] urang [[Jérman]] [[Agustus Wilhelm von Hofmann]] némbongkeun yén salila ''transformation'' styrol lumangsung henteu ngabutuhkeun oksigén. Maranéhanana nyebut ieu zat métastyrol. Panalungtikan satuluyna ngébréhkeun yén ieu kimia téh sarua pisan/idéntik jeung [[Styroloxyd]]. Dina taun [[1866]] Marcelin Berthelot naluntiknalungtik ieu formasi metastyrol / Styroloxyd ti styrol salaku prosés polimérisasi. Saengeusna 80 kaliwat kakara kapanggih yén manaskeun styrol bakalngahasilkeun réaksi kantétan makromolekul, manehna ahli kimia organik Jerman Hermann Staudinger ([[1881]]-[[1965]]) nya dingaranan waé ieu zat téh nyaéta ''polystyrene''.
 
Pausahaan IG Farben mimiti muka pabrik polystyrene di Ludwigshafen, dina taun [[1931]], ieu bakal jadi gaganti [[séng]] dina loba kagunaan. Sukses ieu kahontal nalika tumuwuh wadah réaktor geusanpikeun nga extruded polystyrene ngaliwatan tabung/solobong/tube dipanaskeun tuliy dipotongan, ngahasilkeun polystyrene dina bentuk pellet/guruntulan.
 
Dina taun [[1941]], Dow Chemical nyiptakeun proses Styrofoam. <ref>{{cite web|title=Invention of STYROFOAM™|url=http://building.dow.com/about/invention.htm|publisher=Dow Chemical|accessdate=23 December 2012}}</ref>
 
Saméméh taun [[1949]], insinyur kimia saengang Stastny ([[1908]]-[[1985]]) dimekarkeun pre-dilegaan manik PS ku incorporating hidrokarbon alifatik, saperti pentane. Di handap ieu mangrupa bahan baku pikeun molding bagian atawa extruding. BASF jeung Stastny diterapkeun keur patén nu dikaluarkeun dina 1949. Prosés molding ieu nunjukkeun di Kunststoff Messe [[1952]] di Düsseldorf. Produk anu ngaranna Styropor.
Dina taun [[1954]], Koppers Company di [[Pittsburgh]], [[Pennsylvania]], mekarkeun (EPS)/busa kalayan ngaran dagang Dylite.<ref>Page 207 of Rigid Plastics Foams 2nd edition by T.H. Ferrigno published in 1967.</ref>
 
Dina taun [[1960]], [[Dart Container]], mangrupa pabrik cangkir tina bahan busa pangbadagna, order kahiji maranéhanana. <ref>{{cite web|title=Celebrating 50 Years of Excellence in People and Products|url=http://www.dartcontainer.com/web/products.nsf/pages/celebrating50timeline.html|publisher=Dart Container Corporation|accessdate=23 December 2012}}</ref>
 
Taun [[1988]], AS mimiti ngabatesan ieu pamakeanpamakéan busa polystyrene keur dipakedipaké umum di [[Berkeley]], [[California]]. <ref name="berkeley-1988">{{cite news|title=Berkeley Widens Ban on Foam Food Containers|url=http://articles.latimes.com/1988-06-16/news/mn-6881_1_foam-food-containers|accessdate=23 December 2012|newspaper=The Los Angeles Times|date=16 June 1988}}</ref>
 
==Golongan Polistirene==
Dumasar kana sipat pisik jeung paninggalian, ieu bahan polistirene dibedakeun kana opat golongan diantaranadi antarana wae:
#GPPS PS (Basa Inggris: ''General Purpose Polystyrene''), katempona herang/ transparan, teuas, sarta regas.
#HIPS (Basa Inggris: ''High impact Polystyrene''), rada kuat henteu regas jiga GPPS warnana bodas susu (White opaque)
 
==Barang anu dihasilkeun==
Polystyrene/polistirene kalolobaanalolobanaa dipaké dina mesin citakan /[[injection molding]], sistem sedot [[vacuum forming]], atawa di [[extruded]], expandedPolystyrene/polistirene dijieun makemaké citakan husus . Polystyrene/polistirene kopolimer ogeogé bisa dijieun; didieudi dieu bahan ieu ngandung hiji ata leuwih monomers dicampurkeun kana [[stirene]]. <ref>{{cite journal|author=Doroudiani S, Kortschot MT|year=2004|title=Expanded Wood Fiber Polystyrene Composites: Processing-Structure-Mechanical Properties Relationships|journal=Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials|volume=17|pages=13–30|doi=10.1177/0892705704035405}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|doi=10.1002/polb.10129|title=Sorption and diffusion of carbon dioxide in wood-fiber/polystyrene composites|year=2002|last1=Doroudiani|first1=Saeed|last2=Chaffey|first2=Charles E.|last3=Kortschot|first3=Mark T.|journal=Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics|volume=40|page=723|issue=8}}</ref> and starch<ref>{{cite journal|doi=10.1177/0021955X07076532|title=Foaming of Polystyrene/ Thermoplastic Starch Blends|year=2007|last1=Mihai|first1=M.|last2=Huneault|first2=M. A.|last3=Favis|first3=B. D.|journal=Journal of Cellular Plastics|volume=43|page=215|issue=3}}</ref>
 
==Tingali oge==
*[[Polycarbonate]]
*[[Poliétilén]]
*[[Poliétilén terephtalate]] (Katelah disebut PET biasana dipakedipaké [[botol]], ogé [[polyester]] dipakedipaké bahan [[baju]]
*[[Polipropiléné]]
*[[Polistiréna]]
*[[Polyurethane]]
*[[Polyvinyl chloride]] (Katelahna PVC). biasana dipaké [[bungkus]] [[kabel]] [[listrik]].
 
==Tutumbu kaluar==
 
*[[http://www.plasticseurope.org/what-is-plastic/types-of-plastics-11148/expanded-polystyrene.aspx Platicseurope]]
*[[http://plastics.ulprospector.com/generics/43/polystyrene-ps ulpospector]]
* [http://riodb01.ibase.aist.go.jp/sdbs/cgi-bin/cre_index.cgi?lang=eng Infrarot und Ramanspektrum von Polystyrol]
* [http://www.waermedaemmstoffe.com/htm/polystyrol.htm www.waermedaemmstoffe.com] technische Informationen zu den Dämmstoffen Styropor (EPS) und Styropor (XPS)
* [http://www.materialarchiv.ch/#/detail/41/expandiertes-polystyrol/ MATERIAL ARCHIV: Expandiertes Polystyrol] – Umfangreiche Materialinformationen und Bilder
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uJ6-jRo1izY Spannungsrisskorrosion von PMMA und PS] Youtube VideoVidéo: Crazes bei PS
 
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