Langir atawa kala nyaéta arthropoda predator ti ordo Scorpiones di kelas Arachnida. Sukuna aya dalapan, boga ciri utama sapasang cacapit anu badag jeung buntut leutik anu tungtungna boga panyeureud, gedéna antara 9 mm (Typhlochactas mitchelli) nepi ka 20 cm (Hadogenes troglodytes).[1][2]


Tapak évolusi langir kapanggih nepi ka jaman Siluria 430 juta taun kaliwat, hirup dina rupa-rupa lingkungan di sakuliah buana, iwal Antartika. Anu geus kacatet, aya 1750 spésiés,[3] anu kabagi 13 famili. Tina anu loba ieu, ngan 25-an anu peurahna bisa nelasan manusa.[4]:1.

FosilÉdit

 
Proscorpius osborni, fosil langir anu mimitina disangka eurypterida

Langir loba tapakna dina catetan fosil, pangkolotna umur 430 juta taun dina périodeu Siluria. Najan kungsi disangka mimitina hirup di dasar laut tropis anu dé'ét[5], kiwari karuhun langir dipercaya ti mimiti geus hirup di darat.

MorfologiÉdit

 
Anatomi langir:
1 = Cephalothorax atawa Prosoma;
2 = Abdomén atawa Mésosoma;
3 = Buntut atawa Métasoma;
4 = Cacapit atawa Pedipalp
5 = Suku;
6 = Sungut atawa Chelicerae;
7 = pincers or Chelae;
8 = Cacapit gerak atawa Tarsus;
9 = Cacapit cicing atawa Manus;
10 = Panyeureud atawa Aculeus ;
11 = Telson.
 
Langir nyanghareup
 
Panyeureud langir Arizona

Awak langir kabagi tilu bagian (tagmata): hulu (cephalothorax), abdomén (mésosoma) jeung buntut (métasoma).[4]:10

FluoresénsiÉdit

 
Langir disorot cahya hideung.

Lamun kasorot cahya ultrabungur, langir bisa hurung siga lamun kasorot cahya hideung, ku ayana bahan kimia fluoreséns dina cangkangna, di antarana béta-karbolin.[6]

RujukanÉdit

  1. Edward E. Ruppert, Richard S. Fox, Robert D. Barnes (2004). Invertebrate Zoology. Brooks/Cole. ISBN 978-81-315-0104-7. 
  2. Jonathan, Rigg (1862). A Dictionary of the Sunda Language of Java. Universitas Harvard: Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. 
  3. František Kovařík (2009). "Illustrated catalog of scorpions, Part I" (PDF). Diakses tanggal January 22, 2011. 
  4. a b Gary A. Polis (1990). The Biology of Scorpions. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-1249-1. 
  5. Andrew Jeram (Citakan:ISO date/en). "When scorpions ruled the world". New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg12617214.200-when-scorpions-ruled-the-world-scorpions-took-the-big-step-onto-solid-ground-about-300-million-years-ago-scottish-fossils-reveal-how-they-evolved-to-leave-the-seas-and-become-the-first-predators-on-land.html 
  6. Shawn J Stachel, Scott A Stockwell and David L Van Vranken (August 1999). "The fluorescence of scorpions and cataractogenesis". Chemistry & Biology 6 (8): 531–539. doi:10.1016/S1074-5521(99)80085-4. PMID 10421760. 

Tutumbu kaluarÉdit

Citakan:Arachnida