Paku tihang beureum


Paku tihang beureum  ; Alsophila nyaéta hiji tutuwuhan paku anu asalna tina kulawarga Cyatheaceae.[1] Éta ogé parantos dianggap bagéan tina genus Cyathea. Alsophila ayeuna dipisahkeun sareng genera anu sanés dina kulawarga Cyatheaceae utamina dumasar kana filogénetik molekular.[1][2]

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Helpful links
Paku tihang beureum
Cyathea Capenis - TreeFern - Cape Town.JPG
Alsophila capensis
Klasifikasi ilmiah e
Missing taxonomy template (fix): Alsophila (plant)
Pucukna anu muringkel kénéh Alsophila dealbata


Ciri mandiriÉdit

Spésiés Alsophila tangkalna ajeg kaluhur tur henteu mibanda dahan, ilaharna mingkin ka luhur tangkalna mingkin ngaleutikan. Palapah daunna baradag, kitu deui gagangna .[3]

Anu ngabédakeun Alsophila jeung Sphaeropteris tayalian ukuran gagangna, sareng rambut apikal atanapi tulang tonggong (seta), teu sapertos Cyathea. Hiasan spora ogé ngabédakeun Alsophila sareng Cyathea .[4][5]

TaksonomiÉdit

Genus Alsophila mimiti diguar ku Robert Brown taun 1810.[6] Éta ditempatkeun dina kulawarga Cyatheaceae.[1] Babagian kulawarga turta genera ieu parantos ngagaduhan sajarah anu panjang sareng parobahan/kontroversial.[5] Tilu atanapi opat clade diusulkeun dumasar kana filogénetik molekular. Klasifikasi Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group klasifikasi 2016 (PPG I) nampi tilu genera, nempatkeun Gymnosphaera clade dina Alsophila .[1] Dina taun 2018, Dong jeung Zuo ngusulkeun hubungan anu dipidangkeun dina cladogram di handap, sareng nyayogikeun nami-nami dina Gymnosphaera pikeun spésiés anu dianggapna kagolong kana genus ieu.[7]

Cyatheaceae

Sphaeropteris




Cyathea


Alsophila sensu lato

Alsophila sensu stricto



Gymnosphaera






Sumber anu langkung lami, sapertos ngadaptar Organisasi New Zealand taun (2004), nempatkeun Alsophila dina jero anu ditetepkeun sacara umum Cyathea .[8][9]

SpésiésÉdit

Golongan. Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016 (PPG I) bagéan tina genus Alsophila kalawan mibanda 275 spésiés.[1] , Checklist of Ferns and Lycophytes of the World nempatkeun spésiés :[10]

Sebaran sareng habitatÉdit

Genus Alsophila ieu, loba kapanggih hirup di wewengkon tropis aya ogé di subtropis, ti Amérika Kalér sareng Kidul, ngaliwatan Afrika, Madagaskar sareng tropis Asia, ka wétan Australasia dugi ka kidul dugi ka subantarctic kapuloan Auckland.[11][3] Éta aya di leuweung montane anu beueus, di lamping atanapi di jurang, janten bagian tina kanopi handap, tengah, understorey atanapi lapisan luhur taneuh.[3]

BudidayaÉdit

Alsophila spésiés sadayana meryogikeun lingkungan tiris atanapi ampir teu aya dina ibun, beueus sacara permanén , kaayaan kaiuhan. Anu parantos dipelak di Éropa di luar habitat asalna kaasup A. australis, A. cunninghamii, A. dealbata, A. leichhardtiana and A. rebeccae.[12] Spésiés séjén dipelak di daérah asalna. Di Australia, A. australis ilahar dipelak sareng mangrupakeun spésiés anu kuat, kuat kapanasan salami aya dina taneuh anu beueus.[13] A. dregei mangrupikeun pepelakan kebon anu kawentar di Afrika Kidul, ieu tutuwuhan dikumpulkeun ti alam liar sahingga sering kajantenan ieu tutuwuhan tumpur di sababaraha daérah.[14]

KabudayaanÉdit

Alsophila dealbata Parantos janten hiji lambang anu dipiwanoh ku balaréa di New Zealand, sanaos sanés lambang pejabat nasional.[15]

Dina taun 1971 pilem komedi A New Leaf, Henrietta Lowell (salaku Elaine May) tayalian ahli tutuwuhan anu impianana pikeun ngaguar sarta ngantétkeun pirang-pirang spésiés pakis anyar. Dina hiji mangsa, anjeunna memang mendakan spésiés énggal anu namina Alsophila grahami ieu dicokot tina ngaran salakina "Henry Graham" sarta ngaguar rupa-rupa ciri mandirina.

Dicutat tinaÉdit

  1. a b c d e f PPG I (2016). "A community-derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns". Journal of Systematics and Evolution 54 (6): 563–603. doi:10.1111/jse.12229. 
  2. Heyne, K. (1913). DE NUTTIGE PLANTEN VAN NEDERLANDSCH-INDIË. Library New York Botanical Garden: RUYGROK & Co BATAVIA. p. 151. Diakses tanggal (disungsi) 10 Mei 2021. 
  3. a b c Zhang, Xianchun; Nishida, Harufumi. "Alsophila". Di Wu, Zhengyi; Raven, Peter H.; Hong, Deyuan. Flora of China (online). eFloras.org. Diakses tanggal 2019-09-27. 
  4. Weigand, Anna; Lehnert, Marcus (2016), "The scaly tree ferns (Cyatheaceae-Polypodiopsida) of Brazil", Acta Botanica Brasilica 30 (3): 336–350, doi:10.1590/0102-33062016abb0065 
  5. a b Korall, Petra; Conant, David S.; Metzgar, Jordan S.; Schneider, Harald; Pryer, Kathleen M. (2007). "A molecular phylogeny of scaly tree ferns (Cyatheaceae)". American Journal of Botany 94 (5): 873–886. doi:10.3732/ajb.94.5.873. PMID 21636456. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/51186907. Diakses pada 2019-08-22. 
  6. "Alsophila R.Br.". The International Plant Names Index. Diakses tanggal 2019-09-27. 
  7. Dong, Shi-Yong; Zuo, Zheng-Yu (2018). "On the Recognition of Gymnosphaera As a Distinct Genus in Cyatheaceae". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 103 (1): 1–23. doi:10.3417/2017049. 
  8. "Alsophila R.Br.", NZOR New Zealand Organisms Register, October 2000, diakses tanggal 2019-09-27 
  9. Large, Mark F.; Braggins, John E. (2004). Tree Ferns. Timber Press. ISBN 978-0-88192-630-9. 
  10. Hassler, Michael; Schmitt, Bernd (June 2019). Checklist of Ferns and Lycophytes of the World 8 (2). Diakses tanggal 2019-08-21. 
  11. "Alsophila R.Br.". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Diakses tanggal 2019-09-27. 
  12. Walters, S.M.; Brady, A.; Brickell, C.D.; Cullen, J.; Green, P.S.; Lewis, J.; Matthews, V.A.; Webb, D.A.; Yeo, P.F.; Alexander, J.C.M., ed. (1986), "Alsophila", European Garden Flora 1, Cambridge University Press, p. 35, ISBN 978-0-521-76147-5 
  13. "Cyathea australis, Cyathea cooperi", Growing Native Plants (Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research), diakses tanggal 2019-09-27 
  14. Masinga, Nonhlanhla; Nduli, Luckyboy; Skhosana, Mlondi; Notten, Alice (November 2018), "Alsophila dregei ", PlantZAfrica.com, diakses tanggal 2019-09-27 
  15. "Government and nation - National animal and flower". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. (3 March 2009).