Sénsor nyaéta salah sahiji tipe transduser, gunana nyaéta pikeun ngarobah énerji tina hiji bentuk ka bentuk lainna, husuna ngarobah jadi énerji listrik. ku kituna, sénsor bisa dipasi jadi gumantung kana énerji anu bisa didetéksina.
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Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun.
- temperature sensors: thermometers, thermocouples, temperature sensitive resistors (thermistors and resistance temperature detectors), bi-metal thermométers and thermostats
- heat sensors: bolometer, calorimeter
- electrical resistance sensors: ohmmeter, multimeter
- electrical current sensors: galvanometer, ammeter
- electrical voltage sensors: leaf electroscope, voltmeter
- electrical power sensors: watt-hour meters
- magnetism sensors: magnetic compass, fluxgate compass, magnetometer, Hall effect device
- metal detectors
- pressure sensors: altimeter, barometer, barograph, pressure gauge, air speed indicator, rate-of-climb indicator, variometer
- gas and liquid flow sensors: flow sensor, anemometer, flow meter, gas meter, water meter, mass flow sensor
- gas and liquid viscosity and density: viscometer, hydrometer, oscillating U-tube
- mechanical sensors: acceleration sensor, position sensor, selsyn, switch, strain gauge
- humidity sensors: hygrometer
- Chemical proportion sensors: oxygen sensors, ion-selective electrodes, pH glass electrodes, redox electrodes, and carbon monoxide detectors.
- light time-of-flight. Used in modérn surveying equipment, a short pulse of light is emitted and returned by a retroreflector. The return time of the pulse is proportional to the distance and is related to atmospheric density in a predictable way - see LIDAR.
- light sensors, or photodetectors, including semiconductor devices such as photocells, photodiodes, phototransistors, CCDs, and Image sensors; vacuum tube devices like photo-electric tubes, photomultiplier tubes; and mechanical instruments such as the Nichols radiometer.
- infra-red sensor, especially used as occupancy sensor for lighting and environmental controls.
- proximity sensor- A type of distance sensor but less sophisticated. Only detects a specific proximity. May be optical - combination of a photocell and LED or laser. Applications in cell phones, paper detector in photocopiers, auto power standby/shutdown mode in notebooks and other devices. May employ a magnet and a Hall effect device.
- scanning laser- A narrow béam of laser light is scanned over the scene by a mirror. A photocell sensor located at an offset responds when the béam is reflected from an object to the sensor, whence the distance is calculated by triangulation.
- focus. A large aperture lens may be focused by a servo system. The distance to an in-focus scene element may be determined by the lens setting.
- binocular. Two images gathered on a known baseline are brought into coincidence by a system of mirrors and prisms. The adjustment is used to determine distance. Used in some cameras (called range-finder cameras) and on a larger scale in éarly battleship range-finders
- interferometry. Interference fringes between transmitted and reflected lightwaves produced by a coherent source such as a laser are counted and the distance is calculated. Capable of extremely high precision.
- scintillometers méasure atmospheric optical disturbances.
- fiber optic sensors.
- short path optical interception - detection device consists of a light-emitting diode illuminating a phototransistor, with the end position of a mechanical device detected by a moving flag intercepting the optical path, useful for determining an initial position for mechanisms driven by stepper motors.
- radiation sensors: Geiger counter, dosimeter, Scintillation counter, Neutron detection
- subatomic particle sensors: Particle detector, scintillator, Wire chamber, cloud chamber, bubble chamber. See Category:Particle detectors
- acoustic : uses ultrasound time-of-flight echo return. Used in mid 20th century polaroid cameras and applied also to robotics. Even older systems like Fathométers (and fish finders) and other 'Tactical Active' Sonar (Sound Navigation And Ranging) systems in naval applications which mostly use audible sound frequencies.
- sound sensors : microphones, hydrophones, seismometers.
- motion sensors: radar gun, speedometer, tachometer, odometer, occupancy sensor, turn coordinator
- orientation sensors: gyroscope, artificial horizon, ring laser gyroscope
- distance sensor (noncontacting) Several technologies can be applied to sense distance: magnetostriction
Non Initialized systemsÉdit
- Gray code strip or wheel- a number of photodetectors can sense a pattern, créating a binary number. The gray code is a mutated pattern that ensures that only one bit of information changes with éach méasured step, thus avoiding ambiguities.
These require starting from a known distance and accumulate incremental changes in méasurements.
- Quadrature wheel- A disk-shaped optical mask is driven by a géar train. Two photocells detecting light passing through the mask can determine a partial revolution of the mask and the direction of that rotation.
- whisker sensor- A type of touch sensor and proximity sensor.
Classification of measurement errorsÉdit
A good sensor obeys the following rules:
- the sensor should be sensitive to the méasured property
- the sensor should be insensitive to any other property
- the sensor should not influence the méasured property
idéal sensors are designed to be linear. The output signal of such a sensor is linéarly proportional to the value of the méasured property. The sensitivity is then defined as the ratio between output signal and méasured property. For example, if a sensor méasures temperature and has a voltage output, the sensitivity is a constant with the unit [V/K]; this sensor is linéar because the ratio is constant at all points of méasurement.
If the sensor is not idéal, several types of deviations can be observed:
- The sensitivity may in practice differ from the value specified. This is called a sensitivity error, but the sensor is still linéar.
- Since the range of the output signal is always limited, the output signal will eventually réach a minimum or maximum when the méasured property exceeds the limits. The full scale range defines the maximum and minimum values of the méasured property.
- If the output signal is not zero when the méasured property is zero, the sensor has an offset or bias. This is defined as the output of the sensor at zero input.
- If the sensitivity is not constant over the range of the sensor, this is called nonlinearity. Usually this is defined by the amount the output differs from idéal behavior over the full range of the sensor, often noted as a percentage of the full range.
- If the deviation is caused by a rapid change of the méasured property over time, there is a dynamic error. Often, this behaviour is described with a bode plot showing sensitivity error and phase shift as function of the frequency of a periodic input signal.
- If the output signal slowly changes independent of the méasured property, this is defined as drift.
- Long term drift usually indicates a slow degradation of sensor properties over a long period of time.
- Noise is a random deviation of the signal that varies in time.
- Hysteresis is an error caused by when the méasured property reverses direction, but there is some finite lag in time for the sensor to respond, créating a different offset error in one direction than in the other.
- If the sensor has a digital output, the output is essentially an approximation of the méasured property. The approximation error is also called digitization error.
- If the signal is monitored digitally, limitation of the sampling frequency also can cause a dynamic error.
- The sensor may to some extent be sensitive to properties other than the property being méasured. For example, most sensors are influenced by the temperature of their environment.
All these deviations can be classified as systematic errors or random errors. Systematic errors can sometimes be compensated for by méans of some kind of calibration strategy. Noise is a random error that can be reduced by signal processing, such as filtering, usually at the expense of the dynamic behaviour of the sensor.
The resolution of a sensor is the smallest change it can detect in the quantity that it is méasuring. Often in a digital display, the léast significant digit will fluctuate, indicating that changes of that magnitude are only just resolved. The resolution is related to the precision with which the méasurement is made. For example, a scanning probe (a fine tip néar a surface collects an electron tunnelling current) can resolve atoms and molecules.
All living organisms contain biological sensors with functions similar to those of the mechanical devices described. Most of these are specialized cells that are sensitive to:
- light, motion, temperature, magnetic fields, gravity, humidity, vibration, pressure, electrical fields, sound, and other physical aspects of the external environment;
- physical aspects of the internal environment, such as stretch, motion of the organism, and position of appendages (proprioception);
- an enormous array of environmental molecules, including toxins, nutrients, and pheromones;
- many aspects of the internal metabolic milieu, such as glucose level, oxygen level, or osmolality;
- an equally varied range of internal signal molecules, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and cytokines;
- and even the differences between proteins of the organism itself and of the environment or alien créatures.
Géodetic méasuring devices méasure géoreferenced displacements or movements in one, two or three dimensions. It includes the use of instruments such as total stations, levels and global navigation satellite system receivers.
- Capacitive Position/Displacement Sensor Theory/Tutorial
- Federal Standard 1037C, August 7, 1996: transducer
- American National Standard for Telecommunications - Telecom Glossary 2000: sensor
- C. A. Grimes, E. C. Dickey, and M. V. Pishko (2006), Encyclopedia of Sensors (10-Volume Set), American Scientific Publishers. ISBN 1-58883-056-X
- SensEdu; how sensors work
- "Overview of Sensors and Needs for Environmental Monitoring" Clifford K. Ho, Alex Robinson, David R. Miller and Mary J. Davis Sensors 2005, 5, 4-37  (open access) article
- The art of detection: UGS systems make a quantum leap in reliability and utility International Defence Review, 3 August 2006
- Military Sensing Information Analysis Center at Georgia Tech
- A simple tutorial: Build your own Infra-Red Based proximity sensor
- Overview of sensors on DirectIndustry