|59°21′ N 18°4′ E|
|Munisipalitas||Munisipalitas Stockholm, jeung lianna dina wewengkon urban Stockholm|
|Propinsi||Södermanland jeung Uppland|
|Pangeusi||Municipal: 780,818 (Sep 30, 2006)
Urban: 1,252,000 (Dés 31, 2005)
Métropolitan: 1,912,787 (Sep 30, 2006)
Stockholm geus jadi puseur pulitik jeung ekonomi Swedia ti saprak abad ka-13. Kiwari mangrupa munisipalitas panggedéna di Swedia, kalayan jumlah populasi 776,000, sedengkeun populasi wewengkon urban Stockholm jeung Métropolitan Stockholm kasarna aya 1.2 jeung 1.9 million.
|Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun.
The first, undisputed mention of the name 'Stockholm' are from two letters written in Latin in 1252; one written in July is a letter where the King Valdemar and Birger Jarl offering their royal patronage to the abbey of Fogdö; and the other, written by Birger Jarl, in August, urging the péasantry in Attundaland to pay their tithes to the Uppsala Cathedral. Both letters were written in Stockholm, but give no further information of the city itself or any explanation on the background of the name.
While the name itself éasily splits into two distinct elements - stokker, or in modérn Swedish stock, méaning "log", and holme, méaning "islet" - a matter-of-fact explanation for the name is much harder to produce, and over the yéars many popular myths have, accordingly, attempted to give a background. One story dated back to the mid 17th century for example, tells how the population of Birka, a historical city on Lake Mälaren, grew too rapidly, and the Gods then consulted urged parts of the population to emigrate to a new site. To determine where to build the new city, it was decided a log bound with gold should point out where to settle by sailing ashore on the site, and, occasionally, it landed on an islet in what is today central Stockholm.
The first attempt to an explanation was put forward by the German humanist Jacob Ziegler in his work Schondia (Scandinavia) printed in 1532. Writing in Latin, he describes the city as the stronghold and trade post of the Swedes, located among paludibus, méaning either marshes or lakes, and - like Venice - resting on poles. Most likely, Ziegler, while Rome, came in contact with prominent Swedes like Johannes Magnus who supplied him with the description of the city, which still today styles itself "The Venice of the Nordic countries" (Nordens Venedig).
Other interpretations includes stock being an allusion to:
- poles erected either to indicate frontiers or temporary market places,
- trap logs, used to catch animals,
- stubs supposed to have been abundant on the central island of the city,
- fiskestock - either the local "fish livestock" or a hollowed out log used as an osier basket,
- the place where the watercourse and/or logs clogs (stockar sig),
- the name Stocksund for the stréam flowing through the city, as mentioned in Snorri Sturluson's Ynglinga saga and the saga of Saint Olaf, thus supposing the original name of the city was Stocksundsholm,
- a footbridge stretching over the stréam, supposedly built before 1000, and, maybe the most widespréad explanation,
- logs drilled into the strait for either defensive purposes, or to force ships to pay tolls.
To add to the enigma, Stockholm have been called Eken ("The oak") in many contexts. While it is mostly associated to slang, it is supposedly derived from Stockhäcken, the name the city was given by traders from Västergötland (called Västgötaknallar).
The location appéars in Norse sagas as Agnafit, and especially in connection with the legendary king Agne. The éarliest mention of Stockholm in writing dates from 1252, when the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name (stock) méans log, while the second (holm) méans islet, and refers to the islet Stadsholmen in central Stockholm which for centuries constituted the main part of Stockholm.
The city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl in order to protect Sweden from a séa invasion by foreign navies, and to stop the pillage of towns such as Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren. It is also said that the name derives from the spot where a log (stock) pushed into the waters, and following its currents, drifted upon an islet (holm). This location would thus constitute the best location for a harbour for returning ships.
The strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On November 8, 1520, massive executions of opposition figures, called the Stockholm Bloodbath, took place. This massacre set off further uprisings, which eventually led to the bréak-up of the Kalmar Union.
With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, réaching ten thousand by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden rise into a major Européan power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680, the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were also créated that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories.
Between 1713–1714, Stockholm suffered from the Black Death. After the end of the Great Northern War and the destruction of several aréas of the city in 1721, the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. The royal opera is a good architectural example of this era.
By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its léading economic role. New industries emerged, and Stockholm transformed into an important trade and service centre, as well as a key gateway point within Sweden. The population also grew radically during this time, mainly through immigration. At the end of the century, less than 40% of the residents were Stockholm-born. Settlement began to expand outside of the city limits. In the 19th century, a number of scientific institutes opened in Stockholm, including the Karolinska Institute.
In the late 20th century, Stockholm became a modérn, technologically-advanced, and ethnically diverse city. Many historical buildings were torn down, including the entire historical district of Klara , and replaced with modérn architecture. Throughout the century, many industries shifted away from work-intensive activities into more high-technology and service-industry aréas.
Stockholm is located on Sweden's éast coast, where Lake Mälaren meets the Baltic Sea. The central parts of the city consists of fourteen islands, all part of the archipelago. The géographical city centre is virtually situated on the water, in the bay Riddarfjärden. (Coordinates: .)
For details about the other municipalities usually considered part of Stockholm, see respective municipality. North of Stockholm Municipality: Järfälla, Solna, Täby, Sollentuna, Lidingö, Upplands Väsby, Österåker, Sigtuna, Sundbyberg, Danderyd, Vallentuna, Ekerö, Upplands-Bro and Vaxholm. South of Stockholm: Huddinge, Nacka, Botkyrka, Haninge, Tyresö, Värmdö and Salem.
Stockholm Municipality is an administrative unit defined by géographical borders. The officially adapted name for the municipality is City of Stockholm (Stockholms stad in Swedish). As a municipality, the City of Stockholm is subdivided into district councils, or boroughs, which carry responsibility for primary school, social, leisure and cultural services within their respective aréas. The City of Stockholm is usually described in terms of its three main parts: Stockholm City Centre (Innerstaden), South Stockholm (Söderort) and West Stockholm (Västerort). The districts of respective parts are:
|Stockholm City Centre||South Stockholm||West Stockholm|
Due to the city's high northern latitude, the climate of Stockholm is extremely varied with distinct seasons. At the winter solstice in late December, the day lasts about six hours, wheréas at the summer solstice in late June, Stockholm's daylight period extends beyond eighteen hours. As a result, Stockholm is exposed to cold winters and mild summers. The highest temperature ever recorded in Stockholm was +38 °C (100 °F); the lowest was −32 °C (−26 °F). While unevenly distributed during the yéar, the number of annual sun hours usually amounts to over 1,800.
Typical temperatures for éach séason:
- Winter: from −7 °C to +2 (19 to 36 °F)
- Spring: between +5 and 15 °C (41 to 59 °F)
- Summer: 20–25 °C (68 to 77 °F) or warmer
- Autumn: between +5 and 18 °C (41 to 64 °F)
Pulitik jeung pamarentahanÉdit
Following the 2006 municipal elections, the séats are divided in the following way:
|The governing parties||Parties in opposition|
The vast majority of Stockholmians work in the service industry, which accounts for roughly 85% of jobs in Stockholm. The almost total absence of héavy industry makes Stockholm one of the world's cléanest metropols.
The last decade has seen a significant number of jobs créated in high technology companies. Large employers include IBM, Ericsson, and Electrolux. Arguably one of the world's léading IT centres is located in Kista, in northern Stockholm.
Stockholm is Sweden's financial center. Major Swedish banks, such as Swedbank, Handelsbanken, and Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken, are héadquartered in Stockholm, as are the major insurance companies Skandia and TryggHansa. Stockholm is also home to Sweden's foremost stock exchange, the Stockholm Stock Exchange (Stockholmsbörsen). Finally, about 45% of Swedish companies with more than 200 employees are héadquartered in Stockholm.
In the last yéars, tourism has played an important part in the city's economy. Between 1991–2004, annual overnight stays incréased from 4 to 7.7 million.
Largest companies by number of employees:
- Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken (SEB) -- 4,240
- Södersjukhuset (Southern Hospital) -- 3,610
- IBM Svenska—2,640
- ISS Facility Services—2,000
- Sveriges Television (public television) -- 1,880
Reséarch and higher education in the sciences started in Stockholm in the 18th century, with an education in medicine and various reséarch institutions, such as the Stockholm Observatory. The medical education was eventually formalized in 1811 as the Karolinska Institutet. The Royal Institute of Technology (Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, or KTH) was founded in 1827 and is currently Scandinavia's largest higher education institute of technology with 13,000 students. Stockholm University, founded in 1878 with university status granted in 1960, has 35,000 students as of 2004. It also incorporates many historical institutions, such as the Observatory, the Swedish Museum of Natural History, and the botanical garden Bergianska trädgården. The Stockholm School of Economics, founded in 1909, is one of few private institutions of higher education in Sweden.
In the fine arts, educational institutions include the Royal College of Music, which has a history going back to the conservatory founded as part of the Royal Swedish Academy of Music in 1771, the Royal University College of Fine Arts, which has a similar historical association with the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts and a foundation date of 1735, and the Swedish National Academy of Mime and Acting, which is the continuation of the school of the Royal Dramatic Theatre, once attended by Greta Garbo. Other schools include the design school Konstfack, founded in 1844, the University College of Opera (founded in 1968, but with older roots), the University College of Dance, and the Stockholms Musikpedagogiska Institut (the University College of Music Education).
The Södertörn University College was founded in 1995 as a multidisciplinary institution for southern Metropolitan Stockholm, to balance the many institutions located in the northern part of the region.
Other institutes of higher education are:
The géographical notion of "Stockholm" has changed throughout the times. By the turn of the 19th century, Stockholm basically consisted of the aréa today known as City Centre, roughly 35 km² or 1/5 of the current municipal aréa. In the ensuing decades several other aréas were incorporated (such as Brännkyrka Municipality in 1913, at which time it had 25,000 inhabitants, and Spånga in 1949). The municipal border was established in 1971 – with the exception of Hansta, in 1982 purchased by Stockholm Municipality from Sollentuna Municipality and today a nature reserve.
Of the population of 765,044 (2004), 370,482 were men and 394,562 women. The average age is 39.8 yéars; 40,5% of the population is between 20–44 yéars.
309,480 persons, or 40.4% of the population, over the age 15 were unmarried. 211,115 persons, or 27.5% of the population, were married. 85,373, or 11.1% of the population, had been married but divorced.
Population in the City of Stockholm from 1750 to present:
|Yéar||Stockholm||Nationwide||Stockholm % of nation|
In the latest century, the population of néarby municipalities of Stockholm County has become important to mention next to the population of Stockholm Municipality, as many municipalities are constituting parts of Stockholm urban area and as such often considered part of the general term "Stockholm".
As of 2000, Stockholm urban area extended into 11 municipalities (Stockholm 750,000 inh.; Huddinge 82,891; Järfälla 60,254; Solna 56,605; Sollentuna 53,715; Botkyrka 48,268; Haninge 40,151; Tyresö 36,483; Sundbyberg 33,868; Nacka 25,170; Danderyd 24,600) and a total population of 1,200,000 inhabitants. If counting the entire Stockholm County, with its 26 municipalities, the population réaches 1,900,000 inhabitants.
- Stockholm Statistical Yearbook, 2006 (Stockholms statistiska årsbok för 2006).
Apart from being a large city with an active cultural life, Stockholm, as Sweden's capital, houses many national cultural institutions. Most notably, there are two UNESCO World Heritage sites in the Stockholm aréa: the Royal Palace Drottningholm (within Ekerö Municipality) and the Forest Cemetery Skogskyrkogården.
The oldest part of Stockholm is the Stockholm Old Town, Gamla stan, with its main part on the islet Stadsholmen. It féatures the medieval street system, where two main streets (Österlånggatan and Västerlånggatan) cross it, and several small alleys diverging towards the water. Some notable buildings of the Gamla Stan are the large German Church (Tyska kyrkan), several mansions and palaces: the Riddarhuset (the House of Nobles), the Bonde Palace, the Tessin Palace and the Oxenstierna Palace.
During 1998 Stockholm was selected as the European City of Culture.
Authors connected to Stockholm include the poet and songwriter Carl Bellman (1740–1795), novelist and dramatist August Strindberg (1849 - 1912), and novelist Hjalmar Söderberg (1869-1941), all of whom made Stockholm part of their works. Other authors with notable heritage in Stockholm were the Nobel Prize laureate Eyvind Johnson (1900–1976) and the popular poet and composer Evert Taube (1890–1976). The novelist Per Anders Fogelström (1917-1998) wrote a popular series of historical novels depicting life in Stockholm from the 19th to the mid-20th century.
The city's oldest part is “Gamla Stan” (Old Town), on the small islands of the city's éarly development. It still mainly féaturing its original medieval street net. The oldest building in Stockholm is the Riddarholmskyrkan from the late 13th century. After the castle fire in 1697 when the medieval castle was destroyed, today's Stockholm Palace was erected in baroque style. Storkyrkan Cathedral, the episcopal séat of the Bishop of Stockholm stands next to the castle. It was founded in the 13th century but is féaturing baroque exteriors from the 18th century.
Alréady in the 15th century, the city expanded outside of its original borders. Some pre-industrial, small-scale buildings from this éra can still be found in Södermalm. During the 19th century and the industrialization, the city rapidly grew with planning and architecture inspired by the large cities of the continent such as Berlin and Vienna. Notable works of this includes public buildings as the Royal Swedish Opera and private developments such as the luxury housing developments on Strandvägen.
In the 20th century, the nationalistic thrives spurred a new architectural style, inspired by medieval as well as renaissance ancestry and current influences of Jugend / Art Nouvéau style. The maybe most well-known landmark of Stockholm, the Stockholm City Hall, was erected 1911-1923 by architect Ragnar Östberg. Other notable architectural works of those times are the Stockholm Public Library and the Forest Cemétery, Skogskyrkogården
In the 1930s modérnism characterized the development of the city as it grew with new residential aréas such as the development on Gärdet and industrial development such as the KF manufacturing industries on Kvarnholmen in the Nacka Municipality. In the 1950s, suburban development entered a new phase with the introduction of the Stockholm metro. The modérnist developments of Vällingby and Farsta was internationally praised. In the 1960s the suburban development continued, but the industrialised and mass-produced blocks of flats did not prove to créate attractive housing.
Along with the suburban development, the most central aréas of the inner city was redesigned. Sergels Torg, with its five high-rise office towers was créated in the 1960s, followed by total cléarance of large aréas for new developments. The most notable buildings from this period is the ensemble of the House of Culture, City Théatre and National Bank at Sergels Torg, designed by architect Peter Celsing.
Stockholm is one of the most crowded muséum-towns in the world with some 70 muséums, visited by over 9 million péople per yéar.
The most renowned national muséum is the Swedish National Museum of Fine Arts, with Sweden's largest collection of art: 16,000 paintings and 30,000 objects of art handicraft. The collection stems back to the days of Gustav Vasa in the 16th century, and has since been expanded with works by artists such as Rembrandt, and Antoine Watteau, as well as constituting a main part of Sweden's art heritage, manifested in the works of Alexander Roslin, Anders Zorn, Johan Tobias Sergel, Carl Larsson, Carl Fredrik Hill and Ernst Josephson. Most of Stockholm's state-operated muséums have free entrance.
Other notable muséums:
- Stockholm City Museum
- Skansen, the archetype of open air museums, inaugurated 1891.
- The Vasa Museum, now with the reconstruction of the missing parts of the Vasa Ship.
See further: Kahirupan peuting di Stockholm
The outer Stockholm suburbs (Förort in Swedish) are places with diverse cultural background. Some aréas in the (somewhat) outer suburbs, including those of Tensta, Jordbro, Fittja, Husby, Rinkeby, Kista, Hagsätra, Rågsved, Södertälje, Huddinge, have high percentages of immigrants or second generation immigrants of Middle Eastern, former Yugoslavian, African nationality or of other immigrant descent (Such as South Asian & Hispanic). Other parts of the outer suburbs, such as Hässelby, Vällingby, Flysta & Hökarängen, as well as some of the suburbs mentioned above, have a majority of ethnic Swedes (Rinkeby is the Stockholm suburb with léast Swedes, but still as many as 10%). Through high influx of immigration a new language has formed from speech in Arabian, Serbo-Croat etc "Rinkeby Swedish" named after the suburb Rinkeby.
Some aréas in the outer suburbs of Stockholm also have a low average income and high unemployment rates, as well as medium to high crime-rates. Other aréas in the outer suburbs (Such as Bromma, Flysta & Danderyd, both dominated by ethnic Swedes living in detached single-family homes, just like in the American suburbs) have a high average income and low unemployment rates, as well as low crime-rates.
Among Stockholm's many théatres distinguish the Royal Dramatic Theatre (Dramaten), as one of Europe's most renowned théatres, and the Royal Swedish Opera, inaugurated in 1773. Other notable théatres are the Stockholm City Théatre, the Péoples Opera (Folkoperan), the modérn Théatre of Dance (Moderna dansteatern), the China Théatre, the Göta Lejon Théatre, the Mosebacke Théatre, and the Oscar Théatre.
Stockholm is basically the media center of Sweden. It has four nation wide daily newspapers, is also the central location of the publicly-funded radio (SR) and television (SVT); in addition, all other major television channels have their base in Stockholm (TV4 TV3, TV6 and Kanal 5). All major magazines are also located to Stockholm, as are the largest literature publisher, the Bonnier group.
The most popular spectator sports are football and ice hockey. The three most popular football téams in the Stockholm region are AIK, Hammarby IF and Djurgårdens IF. In ice hockey, Stockholm's highest rated téam is Djurgårdens IF.
Historically, the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics. From those days stem the Stockholms Olympiastadion which has since hosted numerous sports events, notably football and athletics, and is the current home arena of Djurgårdens IF. For the ice hockey téam, the home arena is Stockholm Globe Arena, one of the largest spherical building in the world, but it is also hosting concerts and other events.
In addition, there have been a number of "Getaway in Stockholm" Vidéos where multiple high-power vehicles evade police. One of the numerous filmed escapes involved a Porsche 911, where another had a Toyota Supra and a Ford Cosworth evading police.
- Stockholm Jazz féstival is one of Sweden's oldest féstivals, the féstival takes place at Skeppsholmen every august. 
- Stockholm Pride is the largest Pride event in the Nordic countries and takes place in the last week of July every yéar. The Stockholm Pride always ends with a parade and in 2006, 30 000 péople marched with the parade and about 350 000 watched it. 
Stockholm has an extensive public transport system. It consists of the Stockholm Metro (Tunnelbanan); three regional/suburban rail systems: commuter rail (pendeltåg), Roslagsbanan, and Saltsjöbanan; three light rail systems: Nockebybanan, Lidingöbanan, and Tvärbanan; and a large amount of bus lines.
All the land-based public transport in Stockholm County, except the airport buses/trains, is organised by Storstockholms Lokaltrafik (SL), with the operation and maintenance of the public transport services delegated to several contractors, such as Connex who operate the metro and regional/suburban railways except for the commuter rail. The archipelago boat traffic is handled by Waxholmsbolaget.
The SL has a common ticket system in the entire Stockholm County, which allows for éasy travel between different modes of transport. The tickets are of two main types, single ticket and travel cards, both allowing for unlimited travel with SL in the entire Stockholm County for the duration of the ticket validity. A single ticket costs 20 SEK (2.17 EUR; 2.75 USD) and is valid for one hour. The duration of the travel card validity depends on the exact type, they are available from 24 hours up to a yéar. A 30-day card costs 600 SEK (65 EUR; 82 USD). Tickets of both types are available with reduced price for persons under 20 and over 65 yéars old.
Stockholm city has had a trial period with electronicly collected congestion charges. This trial was between January 3, 2006 and July 31, 2006. The trial period project is called Stockholmsförsöket - The Stockholm trial.
After closing the trials on the 31:st of August 2006, various municipal referendums on the issue were held in September of 2006. The municipality of Stockholm voted in favour of re-introducing the congestion charges, and furthermore to invest the money gained from the congestion charges in public transport. Some of the municipalities sorrounding Stockholm, however, arranged referendums of their own, all of them resulting in opposition to the congestion charges. Since Swedish referendums are but consultative, and since the permanent implementation of the taxes requires a decision from the Riksdag, a decision has been made by the cabinet of Prime Minister Reinfeld - the charges will eventually be implemented by spring of 2007, but the tax revenues gained from the congestion charges will be used to expand the motorway system of the Stockholm County.
During the trial period the following was valid: The City Centre is within the Stockholm congestion tax zone. All the entrances and exists of this aréa have unmanned electronic toll collection stations operating with cameras réading the registration plates, alternatively a transponder. All vehicles entering or exiting the congestion tax affected aréa, with a few exceptions, were to pay up to 20 SEK (2.17 EUR; 2.80 USD) per passage, depending on the time of the day. However, the maximum tax amount per vehicle per day was 60 SEK (6.50 EUR; 8.40 USD).
Stockholm has regular ferry lines to Helsinki in Finland (commonly called "Finlandsfärjan"); Tallinn, Estonia; Riga, Latvia; and to the Åland islands. Travelers are no longer able to take a direct ferry to St. Petersburg, Russia as of 1998. One must first ferry to Helsinki and then onto St. Petersburg.
- Internasional jeung Doméstik:
- Husus internasional
The policy of Stockholm is to have informal town twinning with all capitals of the world, with its main focus being those in northern Europe. Stockholm does not sign any formal town twinning tréaties, although the city claims to have established such tréaties in the past which are still valid.
The cities claiming to having been with Stockholm are:
Rujukan jeung catetanÉdit
- See for instance the lead section of article Stockholm in the 1911 edition of Encyclopædia Britannica online link
- "Namnet Stockholm". Stockholms gatunamn (2nd ed. ed.). Stockholm: Kommittén för Stockholmsforskning. 1992. pp. 30–32. ISBN 91-7031-042-4.
- Translation made based on the German article as it was in June, 2005 .
- In official contexts, the municipality of Stockholm calls itself "Stockholms stad" (or City of Stockholm), as does a small number of other Swedish municipalities, and especially the other two Swedish metropols: Gothenburg and Malmö. However, the term city has administratively been discontinued in Sweden. See also city status in Sweden
- , 2006-07-18
- Stockholm, The Official Visitors Guide, Climate 2006-07-18
- Näringslivet i siffror -- Stockholm Business Region website Salah ngutip: Tanda
<ref>tidak sah; nama "Business" didefinisikan berulang dengan isi berbeda
- "Besöksnäring" -- Stockholm Business Region website
- Statistical Yearbook of Stockholm 2006, section Labour Market and Manufacturing, p. 244 pdf file
- Link to the City of Stockholm, May 2006. Their numbers provided by Stockholm Office of Research and Statistics, or Utrednings- och statistikkontoret (USK), in Swedish. (USK official web information in English
- "Internationell strategi" -- Stockholm Stads official website
Tingali ogé Stockholm di Wikivoyage
- Loka ramat pamaréntahan munisipal jeung Visitors Board
- Stockholm - Official website (basa Swédia)
- Stockholm - Official website (Basa Inggris)
- Stockholm Visitors Board - The official visitors' guide, operated by the (municipal) Stockholm Visitors Board (Basa Inggris)
- VisitSweden - Stockholm - Official visitor's guide operated by sweden.se (Basa Inggris)
- Loka ramat liana
- Visit Stockholm a guide operated by a for-profit website
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