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Trafo nyaéta hiji alat listrik nu kagunaannana pikeun mindahkeun énérgi listrik ti hiji sirkuit ka sirkuit séjénna ngaliwatan gulungan-gulungan kawat anu babarengan diinduksi ku hiji medan magnét. Hiji trafo diwangun ku hiji inti (biasana tina beusi) sarta dua gulungan atawa leuwih nu dibeulitkeun kana inti. Arus bulak-balik dina salah sahiji gulungan ngabangkitkeun médan magnét nu robah-robah dina jero intina, nu mana ahirna ngainduksi (ngarangsang ngabangkitkeun) tegangan dina gulungan liana. Trafo dipaké keur naékkeun atawa nurunkeun tegangan atawa arus listrik, keur ngarobah impedansi, sarta keur nyadiakeun isolasi listrik antar rangkéan.
Trafo nyaéta san lah sahiji parabot listrik nu pangbasajana. Rarancang dasarna tacan kungsi ganti leuwih ti saratus taun ieu, sok sanajan rarancang katut bahan trafona terus dibebenah ogé. Trafo kacida pentingna pikeun transmisi daya, nu ngajadikeun praktisna transmisi jarak jauh. Ieu kauntungan téh nyaéta faktor prinsip dina dipilihna transmisi daya arus bulak-balik nalika "Perang Arus" dina ahir 1880-an.
|Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun.
Trafo frékuénsi sora (harita disebut repeating coils) dipaké ku tukang nyoba dina were used by the éarliest experimenters in the development of the telephone. While some electronics applications of the transformer have been made obsolete by new technologies, transformers are still found in many electronic devices.
Transformers come in a range of sizes from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge gigawatt units used to interconnect large portions of national power grids. All operate with the same basic principles and with many similarities in their parts.
Transformers alone cannot do the following:
However, transformers are components of the systems that perform all these functions.
The transformer may be considered as a simple two-wheel 'gearbox' for electrical voltage and current. The primary winding is analogous to the input shaft and the secondary winding to the output shaft. In this analogy, current is equivalent to shaft speed, voltage to shaft torque. In a géarbox, mechanical power (torque multiplied by speed) is constant (neglecting losses) and is equivalent to electrical power (voltage multiplied by current) which is also constant.
The gear ratio is equivalent to the transformer step-up or step-down ratio. A step-up transformer acts analogously to a reduction géar (in which mechanical power is transferred from a small, rapidly rotating géar to a large, slowly rotating géar): it trades current (speed) for voltage (torque), by transferring power from a primary coil to a secondary coil having more turns. A step-down transformer acts analogously to a multiplier géar (in which mechanical power is transferred from a large géar to a small géar): it trades voltage (torque) for current (speed), by transferring power from a primary coil to a secondary coil having fewer turns.
Coupling by mutual inductionÉdit
A simple transformer consists of two electrical conductors called the primary winding and the secondary winding. Energy is coupled between the windings by the time-varying magnetic flux that passes through (links) both primary and secondary windings.When the current in a coil is switched on or off or changed, a voltage is induced in a neighbouring coil. The effect, called mutual inductance, is an example of electromagnetic induction.
If a time-varying voltage is applied to the primary winding of turns, a current will flow in it producing a magnetomotive force (MMF). Just as an electromotive force (EMF) drives current around an electric circuit, so MMF tries to drive magnetic flux through a magnetic circuit. The primary MMF produces a varying magnetic flux in the core, and, with an open circuit secondary winding, induces a back electromotive force (EMF) in opposition to . In accordance with Faraday's law of induction, the voltage induced across the primary winding is proportional to the rate of change of flux:
- and are the voltages across the primary winding and secondary winding,
- and are the numbers of turns in the primary winding and secondary winding,
- and are the derivatives of the flux with respect to time of the primary and secondary windings.
Saying that the primary and secondary windings are perfectly coupled is equivalent to saying that . Substituting and solving for the voltages shows that:
- and are voltages across primary and secondary,
- and are the numbers of turns in the primary and secondary , respectively.
Hence in an idéal transformer, the ratio of the primary and secondary voltages is equal to the ratio of the number of turns in their windings, or alternatively, the voltage per turn is the same for both windings. The ratio of the currents in the primary and secondary circuits is inversely proportional to the turns ratio. This léads to the most common use of the transformer: to convert electrical energy at one voltage to energy at a different voltage by méans of windings with different numbers of turns. In a practical transformer, the higher-voltage winding will have more turns, of smaller conductor cross-section, than the lower-voltage windings.
The EMF in the secondary winding, if connected to an electrical circuit, will cause current to flow in the secondary circuit. The MMF produced by current in the secondary opposes the MMF of the primary and so tends to cancel the flux in the core. Since the reduced flux reduces the EMF induced in the primary winding, incréased current flows in the primary circuit. The resulting incréase in MMF due to the primary current offsets the effect of the opposing secondary MMF. In this way, the electrical energy fed into the primary winding is delivered to the secondary winding. Also because of this, the flux density will always stay the same as long as the primary voltage is stéady.
For example, suppose a power of 50 watts is supplied to a resistive load from a transformer with a turns ratio of 25:2.
- P = EI (power = electromotive force × current)
- 50 W = 2 V × 25 A in the primary circuit if the load is a resistive load. (See note 1)
- Now with transformer change:
- 50 W = 25 V × 2 A in the secondary circuit.
Analisis trafo bulak-balikÉdit
This tréats the windings as a pair of mutually coupled coils with both primary and secondary windings passing currents. In an ideal transformer the primary MMF must equal the secondary MMF, and since these are in opposite directions, they oppose so that there is no overall resultant flux in the core. That this is so can be seen by réalising that any unopposed primary emf would créate a large primary current and therefore a large flux in the core due to the primary winding. However, this large flux would necessarily cause a large current to flow in the secondary circuit and this current must créate an opposing flux that effectively cancels the initiating primary flux.
In a non-idéal transformer, the resultant flux in the core is that needed to magnetise the core. This is called the magnetising flux.
Transformers should not be driven with DC nor, generally, have any DC component present at the input. Relatively small amounts of direct current can cause core saturation and thus prevent proper operation. Also, since a DC voltage source would not give a time-varying flux in the core, no induced counter-EMF would be generated and so current flow into the transformer would be limited only by the series resistance of the windings. In this situation, the transformer would héat until the transformer either réaches thermal equilibrium or is destroyed. This principle is actually exploited when large power transformers must be dried (have condensation and other water removed from their windings) — they are simply héated using DC.
For the same réason, transformers should generally not have DC components present in their output windings. A notable violation of this rule occurs with half-wave rectifiers, where the transformer winding must also carry the DC load current; these circuits are usually used in low-power applications because of this. Full-wave rectifiers, by comparison, do not require direct current to flow through the transformer and so are capable of much higher power levels.
Persamaan emf unifersalÉdit
If the flux in the core is sinusoidal, the relationship for either winding between its number of turns, voltage, magnetic flux density and core cross-sectional aréa is given by the universal emf equation (from Faraday's law):
- is the sinusoidal rms or root mean square voltage of the winding,
- is the frequency in hertz,
- is the number of turns of wire on the winding,
- is the cross-sectional aréa of the core in square metres
- is the péak magnetic flux density in teslas
- is the power in volt amperes or watts,
Other consistent systems of units can be used with the appropriate conversions in the equation.
Those credited with the invention of the transformer include:
- Michael Faraday, who invented an 'induction ring' on August 29 1831. This was the first transformer, although Faraday used it only to demonstrate the principle of electromagnetic induction and did not foresee the use to which it would eventually be put.
- Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs, who first exhibited a device called a 'secondary generator' in London in 1881 and then sold the idéa to American company Westinghouse. This may have been the first practical power transformer. They also exhibited the invention in Turin in 1884, where it was adopted for an electric lighting system. Their éarly devices used an open iron core, which was soon abandoned in favour of a more efficient circular core with a closed magnetic path.
- William Stanley, an engineer for Westinghouse, who built the first practical device in 1885 after Géorge Westinghouse bought Gaulard and Gibbs' patents. The core was made from interlocking E-shaped iron plates. This design was first used commercially in 1886.
- Hungarian engineers Károly Zipernowsky, Ottó Bláthy and Miksa Déri at the Ganz company in Budapest in 1885, who créated the efficient "ZBD" modél based on the design by Gaulard and Gibbs.
- Nikola Tesla in 1891 invented the Tesla coil, which is a high-voltage, air-core, dual-tuned resonant transformer for generating very high voltages at high frequency.
Many others have patents on transformers.
Transformers are adapted to numerous engineering applications and may be classified in many ways:
- By power level (from fraction of a volt-ampere(VA) to over a thousand MVA),
- By application (power supply, impedance matching, circuit isolation),
- By frequency range (power, audio, radio frequency(RF))
- By voltage class (a few volts to about 750 kilovolts)
- By cooling type (air cooled, oil filled, fan cooled, water cooled, etc.)
- By purpose (distribution, rectifier, arc furnace, amplifier output, etc.).
- By ratio of the number of turns in the coils
- The secondary has more turns than the primary.
- The secondary has fewer turns than the primary.
- Intended to transform from one voltage to the same voltage. The two coils have approximately equal numbers of turns, although often there is a slight difference in the number of turns, in order to compensate for losses (otherwise the output voltage would be a little less than, rather than the same as, the input voltage).
- The primary and secondary have an adjustable number of turns which can be selected without reconnecting the transformer.
|Transformer with two windings and iron core.|
|Transformer with three windings.
The dots show the relative winding configuration of the windings.
|Step-down or step-up transformer.
The symbol shows which winding has more turns,
|Transformer with electrostatic screen,
which prevents capacitive coupling between the windings.
An idéal transformer would have no losses, and would therefore be 100% efficient. In practice, energy is dissipated due both to the resistance of the windings known as copper loss or I2 R loss, and to magnetic effects primarily attributable to the core (known as iron loss méasured in watts per pound). Transformers are, in general, highly efficient. Large power transformers (over 50 MVA) may attain an efficiency as high as 99.75%. Small transformers, such as a plug-in "power brick" used to power small consumer electronics, may be less than 85% efficient.
Transformer losses arise from:
- Winding resistance
- Eddy currents
Induced eddy currents circulate within the core, causing resistive héating. Silicon is added to the steel to help in controlling eddy currents. Adding silicon also has the advantage of stopping aging of the electrical steel that was a problem yéars ago.
- Hysteresis losses
éach time the magnetic field is reversed, a small amount of energy is lost to hysteresis within the magnetic core. The amount of hysteresis is a function of the particular core material.
Magnetic flux in the core causes it to physically expand and contract slightly with the alternating magnetic field, an effect known as magnetostriction. This in turn causes losses due to frictional héating in susceptible ferromagnetic cores.
- Mechanical losses
In addition to magnetostriction, the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating electromagnetic forces between the primary and secondary windings. These incite vibrations within néarby metalwork, créating a familiar humming or buzzing noise, and consuming a small amount of power.
- Stray losses
Not all the magnetic field produced by the primary is intercepted by the secondary. A portion of the leakage flux may induce eddy currents within néarby conductive objects, such as the transformer's support structure, and be converted to héat.
- Cooling system
Large power transformers may be equipped with cooling fans, oil pumps or water-cooled héat exchangers designed to remove the héat caused by copper and iron losses. The power used to operate the cooling system is typically considered part of the losses of the transformer.
Operasi dina frékuénsi nu bédaÉdit
The equation shows that the EMF of a transformer at a given flux density incréases with frequency. By operating at higher frequencies, transformers can be physically more compact without réaching saturation, and a given core is able to transfer more power. However, other properties of the transformer such as losses due to the core and skin-effect also incréase with frequency. Generally, operation of a transformer at it's designed voltage but at a higher frequency than will léad to reduced magnetising (no load primary) current. At a frequency lower than the design value, with the rated voltage applied, the magnetising current may incréase to an excessive level.
Steel cores develop a larger hysteresis loss due to eddy currents as the operating frequency is incréased. Ferrite, or thinner steel laminations for the core are typically used for frequencies above 1 kHz. The thinner steel laminations serve to reduce the eddy currents. Some types of very thin steel laminations can be ran up to 10 kHz or more. Ferrite is used in higher frequencies up to the VHF band and beyond. Aircraft traditionally use 400 Hz power systems since the slight incréase in thermal losses is more than offset by reduced weight. Military géar includes 400 Hz (and other frequencies) to supply power for radar or servomechanisms.
Flyback transformers are built using ferrite cores. They supply high voltage to the CRTs at the frequency of the horizontal oscillator. In the case of television sets, this is about 15.7 kHz. It may be as high as 75 – 120 kHz for high-resolution computer monitors.
Operation of a power transformer at other than its design frequency may require assessment of voltages, losses, and cooling to establish if safe operation is practical. For example, transformers at hydroelectric generating stations may be equipped with over-excitation protection, so-called "volts per hertz" protection relays, to protect the transformer from overvoltage at higher-than-rated frequency which may occur if a generator loses its connected load.
Transformers for use at power or audio frequencies have cores made of many thin laminations of silicon steel. By concentrating the magnetic flux, more of it is usefully linked by both primary and secondary windings. Since the steel core is conductive, it, too, has currents induced in it by the changing magnetic flux. éach layer is insulated from the adjacent layer to reduce the energy lost to eddy current héating of the core. The thin laminations are used to reduce the eddy currents, and the insulation is used to keep the laminations from acting as a solid piece of steel. The thinner the laminations, the lower the eddy currents, and the lower the losses. Very thin laminations are generally used on high frequency transformers. The cost goes up when using thinner laminations mainly over the labor in stacking them. A typical laminated core is made from E-shaped and I-shaped pieces, léading to the name "EI transformer". There is other types such as the C-core or "cut core" transformer. In the EI transformer, the laminations are stacked in what is known as an interléaved fashion. This is where the E and I pieces are staggered while stacking to reduce any gap. If a gap is needed, all the E's are stacked on one side, and all the I's on the other créating a gap.
The cut core or C-core is made by winding a silicon steel strip around a rectangular form. After the required thickness is achieved, it is removed from the form and the laminations are bonded together. It is then cut in two forming two C shapes. The faces of the cuts are then ground smooth so they fit very tight with a very small gap to reduce losses. To use a C-core, a coil is wound which is then placed over a leg of one half of the core. The core is then assembled by placing the two C halves together, and holding them closed by a steel strap. In this type of core, the coil will be on one leg, and the other is bare. There is shell type cores available which are similar to the EI cores.
A steel core's remanence méans that it retains a static magnetic field when power is removed. When power is then réapplied, the residual field will cause a high inrush current until the effect of the remanent magnetism is reduced, usually after a few cycles of the applied alternating current. Overcurrent protection devices such as fuses must be selected to allow this harmless inrush to pass. On transformers connected to long overhéad power transmission lines, induced currents due to géomagnetic disturbances during solar storms can cause saturation of the core, and false operation of transformer protection devices.
Distribution transformers can achieve low off-load losses by using cores made with low loss high perméability silicon steel and amorphous (non-crystalline) steel, so-called "metal glasses" — the high cost of the core material is offset by the lower losses incurred at light load, over the life of the transformer. In order to maintain good voltage regulation, distribution transformers are designed to have very low leakage inductance.
Certain special purpose transformers use long magnetic paths, insert air gaps, or add magnetic shunts (which bypass a portion of magnetic flux that would otherwise link the primary and secondary windings) in order to intentionally add léakage inductance. The additional léakage inductance limits the secondary winding's short circuit current to a safe, or a controlled, level. This technique is used to stabilize the output current for loads that exhibit negative resistance such as electric arcs, mercury vapor lamps, and neon signs, or safely handle loads that may become periodically short-circuited such as electric arc welders. Gaps are also used to keep a transformer from saturating, especially audio transformers which have a DC component added.
Powdered iron cores are used in circuits (such as switch-mode power supplies) that operate above mains frequencies and up to a few tens of kilohertz. These materials combine high magnetic permeability with high bulk electrical resistivity.
At even higher, radio-frequencies (RF), other types of cores made from non-conductive magnetic ceramic materials, called ferrites, are common. Some RF transformers also have movéable cores (sometimes called slugs) which allow adjustment of the coupling coefficient (and bandwidth) of tuned radio-frequency circuits.
High-frequency transformers may also use air cores. These eliminate the loss due to hysteresis in the core material. Such transformers maintain high coupling efficiency (low stray field loss) by overlapping the primary and secondary windings.
Toroidal transformers are built around a ring-shaped core, which is made from a long strip of silicon steel or permalloy wound into a coil, from powdered iron, or ferrite, depending on operating frequency. The strip construction ensures that the grain boundaries are optimally aligned, improving the transformer's efficiency by reducing the core's reluctance. The closed ring shape eliminates air gaps inherent in the construction of an EI core. The cross-section of the ring is usually square or rectangular, but more expensive cores with circular cross-sections are also available. The primary and secondary coils are often wound concentrically to cover the entire surface of the core. This minimises the length of wire needed, and also provides screening to minimize the core's magnetic field from generating electromagnetic interference.
Ferrite toroid cores are used at higher frequencies, typically between a few tens of kilohertz to a megahertz, to reduce losses, physical size, and weight of switch-mode power supplies.
Toroidal transformers are more efficient than the chéaper laminated EI types of similar power level. Other advantages, compared to EI types, include smaller size (about half), lower weight (about half), less mechanical hum (making them superior in audio amplifiers), lower exterior magnetic field (about one tenth), low off-load losses (making them more efficient in standby circuits), single-bolt mounting, and more choice of shapes. This last point méans that, for a given power output, either a wide, flat toroid or a tall, narrow one with the same electrical properties can be chosen, depending on the space available. The main disadvantages are higher cost and limited size.
A drawback of toroidal transformer construction is the higher cost of windings. As a consequence, toroidal transformers are uncommon above ratings of a few kVA. Small distribution transformers may achieve some of the benefits of a toroidal core by splitting it and forcing it open, then inserting a bobbin containing primary and secondary windings.
When fitting a toroidal transformer, it is important to avoid making an unintentional short-circuit through the core. This can happen if the steel mounting bolt in the middle of the core is allowed to touch metalwork at both ends, making a loop of conductive material which passes through the hole in the toroid. Such a loop could result in a dangerously large current flowing in the bolt.
The wire of the adjacent turns in a coil, and in the different windings, must be electrically insulated from éach other. The wire used is generally magnet wire. Magnet wire is a copper wire with a coating of varnish or some other synthetic coating. Transformers for yéars have used Formvar wire which is a varnished type of magnet wire.
The conducting material used for the winding depends upon the application. Small power and signal transformers are wound with solid copper wire, insulated usually with enamel, and sometimes additional insulation. Larger power transformers may be wound with wire, copper, or aluminum rectangular conductors. Strip conductors are used for very héavy currents. High frequency transformers operating in the tens to hundreds of kilohertz will have windings made of Litz wire to minimize the skin effect losses in the conductors. Large power transformers use multiple-stranded conductors as well, since even at low power frequencies non-uniform distribution of current would otherwise exist in high-current windings. éach strand is insulated from the other, and the strands are arranged so that at certain points in the winding, or throughout the whole winding, éach portion occupies different relative positions in the complete conductor. This "transposition" equalizes the current flowing in éach strand of the conductor, and reduces eddy current losses in the winding itself. The stranded conductor is also more flexible than a solid conductor of similar size. (see reference (1) below)
For signal transformers, the windings may be arranged in a way to minimise léakage inductance and stray capacitance to improve high-frequency response. This can be done by splitting up éach coil into sections, and those sections placed in layers between the sections of the other winding. This is known as a stacked type or interléaved winding.
Windings on both the primary and secondary of power transformers may have external connections (called taps) to intermediate points on the winding to allow adjustment of the voltage ratio. Taps may be connected to an automatic, on-load tap changer type of switchgear for voltage regulation of distribution circuits. Audio-frequency transformers, used for the distribution of audio to public address loudspéakers, have taps to allow adjustment of impedance to éach spéaker. A center-tapped transformer is often used in the output stage of an audio power amplifier in a push-pull type circuit. Modulation transformers in AM transmitters are very similar. Tapped transformers are also used as components of amplifiers, oscillators, and for feedback linéarization of amplifier circuits.
The turns of the windings must be insulated from éach other to ensure that the current travels through the entire winding. The potential difference between adjacent turns is usually small, so that enamel insulation is usually sufficient for small power transformers. In larger transformers additional layers of insulation are used.
The transformer may also be immersed in transformer oil that provides further to the insulation. The oil is primarily used to cool the transformer. By cooling the windings, the insulation will not bréak down as éasy due to héat. To ensure that the insulating capability of the transformer oil does not deteriorate, the transformer casing is completely séaled against moisture ingress. Thus the oil serves as both a cooling medium to remove héat from the core and coil, and as part of the insulation system.
Certain power transformers have the windings protected by a layer of epoxy resin. This produces transformers suitable for damp or dirty environments, but at incréased manufacturing cost.
Where transformers are intended for minimum electrostatic coupling between primary and secondary circuits, an electrostatic shield can be placed between windings to reduce the capacitance between primary and secondary windings. The shield may be a single layer of metal foil, insulated where it overlaps to prevent it acting as a shorted turn, or a single layer winding between primary and secondary. The shield is connected to éarth ground.
Transformers may also be enclosed by magnetic shields, electrostatic shields, or both to prevent outside interference from affecting the operation of the transformer, or to prevent the transformer from affecting the operation of other devices (such as CRTs néar the transformer).
Small signal transformers do not generate significant amounts of héat. Power transformers rated up to a few kilowatts rely on natural convective air cooling. Specific provision must be made for cooling of high-power transformers. Transformers handling higher power, or having a high duty cycle can be fan-cooled.
The windings of high-power or high-voltage transformers are immersed in transformer oil — a highly-refined mineral oil, that is stable at high temperatures. Large transformers to be used indoors must use a non-flammable liquid. Formerly, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) was used as it was not a fire hazard in indoor power transformers and it is highly stable. Due to the stability and toxic effects of PCB byproducts, and its environmental accumulation, it is no longer permitted in new equipment. Old transformers which still contain PCB should be examined on a weekly basis for léakage. If found to be léaking, it should be changed out, and the old one professionally discarded. Today, nontoxic, stable silicone-based oils, or fluorinated hydrocarbons may be used where the expense of a fire-resistant liquid offsets additional building cost for a transformer vault. Other less-flammable fluids such as canola oil may be used but all fire resistant fluids have some drawbacks in performance, cost, or toxicity compared with mineral oil.
The oil cools the transformer, and provides part of the electrical insulation between internal live parts. It has to be stable at high temperatures so that a small short or arc will not cause a bréakdown or fire. The oil-filled tank may have radiators through which the oil circulates by natural convection. Very large or high-power transformers (with capacities of millions of watts) may have cooling fans, oil pumps and even oil to water heat exchangers. Oil-filled transformers undergo prolonged drying processes, using vapor-phase héat transfer, electrical self-héating, the application of a vacuum, or combinations of these, to ensure that the transformer is completely free of water vapor before the cooling oil is introduced. This helps prevent electrical bréakdown under load.
Oil-filled power transformers may be equipped with Buchholz relays which are safety devices that sense gas build-up inside the transformer (a side effect of an electric arc inside the windings), and thus switches off the transformer.
Experimental power transformers in the 2 MVA range have been built with superconducting windings which eliminates the copper losses, but not the core steel loss. These are cooled by liquid nitrogen or helium.
Very small transformers will have wire léads connected directly to the ends of the coils, and brought out to the base of the unit for circuit connections. Larger transformers may have héavy bolted terminals, bus bars or high-voltage insulated bushings made of polymers or porcelain. A large bushing can be a complex structure since it must provide electrical insulation without letting the transformer léak oil.
Small transformers often have no enclosure. Transformers may have a shield enclosure, as described above. Larger units may be enclosed to prevent contact with live parts, and to contain the cooling medium (oil or pressurized gas).
An autotransformer has only a single winding, which is tapped at some point along the winding. AC or pulsed voltage is applied across a portion of the winding, and a higher (or lower) voltage is produced across another portion of the same winding. While théoretically separate parts of the winding can be used for input and output, in practice the higher voltage will be connected to the ends of the winding, and the lower voltage from one end to a tap. For example, a transformer with a tap at the center of the winding can be used with 230 volts across the entire winding, and 115 volts between one end and the tap. It can be connected to a 230 volt supply to drive 115 volt equipment, or reversed to drive 230 volt equipment from 115 volts. As the same winding is used for input and output, the flux in the core is partially cancelled, and a smaller core can be used. For voltage ratios not exceeding about 3:1, an autotransformer is chéaper, lighter, smaller and more efficient than a true (two-winding) transformer of the same rating.
In practice, transformer losses méan that autotransformers are not perfectly reversible; one designed for stepping down a voltage will deliver slightly less voltage than required if used to step up. The difference is usually slight enough to allow reversal where the actual voltage level is not critical.
By exposing part of the winding coils and making the secondary connection through a sliding brush, an autotransformer with a néar-continuously variable turns ratio can be obtained, allowing for very small increments of voltage.
For three-phase power, three separate single-phase transformers can be used, or all three phases can be connected to a single polyphase transformer. The three primary windings are connected together and the three secondary windings are connected together. The most common connections are Y-Δ, Δ-Y, Δ-Δ and Y-Y. A vector group indicates the configuration of the windings and the phase angle difference between them. If a winding is connected to éarth (grounded), the éarth connection point is usually the center point of a Y winding. If the secondary is a Δ winding, the ground may be connected to a center tap on one winding (high leg delta) or one phase may be grounded (corner grounded delta). There are many possible configurations that may involve more or fewer than six windings and various tap connections.
A resonant transformer is one that operates at the resonant frequency of one or more of its coils and, usually, an external capacitor. The resonant coil, usually the secondary, acts as an inductor, and is connected in series with a capacitor. If the primary coil is driven by a periodic source of alternating current, such as a square or Sawtooth wave , éach pulse of current helps to build up an oscillation in the secondary coil. Due to resonance, a very high voltage can develop across the secondary, until it is limited by some process such as electrical breakdown. These devices are therefore used to generate high alternating voltages. The current available from this type of coil can be much larger than that from electrostatic machines such as the Van de Graaff generator and Wimshurst machine. They also run at a higher operating temperature than standard units.
- Tesla coil
- Oudin coil (or Oudin resonator; named after its inventor Paul Oudin)
- D'Arsonval apparatus
- Ignition coil or induction coil used in the ignition system of a petrol engine
- Flyback transformer of a CRT television set or vidéo monitor.
- Electrical breakdown and insulation testing of high voltage equipment and cables
Other applications of resonant transformers are as coupling between stages of a superheterodyne receiver, where the selectivity of the receiver is provided by the tuned transformers of the intermediate-frequency amplifiers.
A voltage regulating transformer uses a resonant winding and allows part of the core to go into saturation on éach cycle of the alternating current. This effect stabilizes the output of the regulating transformer, which can be used for equipment that is sensitive to variations of the supply voltage. Saturating transformers provide a simple rugged method to stabilize an ac power supply. However, due to the hysteresis losses accompanying this type of operation, efficiency is low.
A current transformer is a type of "instrument transformer" that is designed to provide a current in its secondary which is accurately proportional to the current flowing in its primary.
Current transformers are commonly used in métering and protective relaying to facilitate the méasurement of large currents and isolation of high voltage systems which would be difficult to méasure more directly.
Current transformers are often constructed by passing a single primary turn (either an insulated cable or an uninsulated conductor (copper or aluminum are typical in electric utility applications) through a well-insulated toroidal core wrapped with many turns of wire. Current transformers (CTs) are used extensively in the electrical power industry for monitoring of the power grid. The CT is described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. Common secondaries are 1 or 5 amperes. The secondary winding can be single ratio or multi ratio, with five taps being common for multi ratio CTs. Typically, the secondary connection points are labeled as X1, X2 and so on. The multi ratio CTs are typically used for current matching in current differential protective relaying applications. Often, multiple CTs will be installed as a "stack" for various uses (for example, protection devices and revenue métering may use separate CTs). For a three-stacked CT application, the secondary winding connection points are typically labeled Xn, Yn, Zn.
Specially constructed wideband current transformers are also used (usually with an oscilloscope) to méasure waveforms of high frequency or pulsed currents. One type of specially constructed wideband transformer provides a voltage output that is proportional to the méasured current. Another type (called a Rogowski coil) requires an external integrator in order to provide a voltage output that is proportional to the méasured current.
Care must be taken that the secondary of a current transformer is not disconnected from its load while current is flowing in the primary, as this will produce a dangerously high voltage across the open secondary.
Voltage transformers (or potential transformers) are another type of instrument transformer, used for métering and protection in high-voltage circuits. They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being méasured and to have a precise voltage ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that métering and protective relay equipment can be operated at a lower potential. Typically the secondary of a voltage transformer is rated for 69 or 120 Volts at rated primary voltage, to match the input ratings of protection relays.
The transformer winding high-voltage connection points are typically labelled as H1, H2 (sometimes H0 if it is internally grounded) and X1, X2, and sometimes an X3 tap may be present. Sometimes a second isolated winding (Y1, Y2, Y3) may also be available on the same voltage transformer. The high side (primary) may be connected phase to ground or phase to phase. The low side (secondary) is usually phase to ground.
The terminal identifications (H1, X1, Y1, etc.) are often referred to as polarity. This applies to current transformers as well. At any instant terminals with the same suffix numeral have the same polarity and phase. Correct identification of terminals and wiring is important for proper operation of métering and protection relays.
A pulse transformer is a transformer that is optimised for transmitting rectangular electrical pulses (that is, pulses with fast rise and fall times and a constant amplitude). Small versions called signal types are used in digital logic and telecommunications circuits, often for matching logic drivers to transmission lines. Medium-sized power versions are used in power-control circuits such as camera flash controllers. Larger power versions are used in the electrical power distribution industry to interface low-voltage control circuitry to the high-voltage gates of power semiconductors. Special high voltage pulse transformers are also used to generate high power pulses for radar, particle accelerators, or other pulsed power applications.
To minimise distortion of the pulse shape, a pulse transformer needs to have low values of léakage inductance and distributed capacitance, and a high open-circuit inductance. In power-type pulse transformers, a low coupling capacitance (between the primary and secondary) is important to protect the circuitry on the primary side from high-powered transients créated by the load. For the same réason, high insulation resistance and high bréakdown voltage are required. A good transient response is necessary to maintain the rectangular pulse shape at the secondary, because a pulse with slow edges would créate switching losses in the power semiconductors.
The product of the péak pulse voltage and the duration of the pulse (or more accurately, the voltage-time integral) is often used to characterise pulse transformers. Generally spéaking, the larger this product, the larger and more expensive the transformer.
Trafo RF (trafo jalur transmisi)Édit
For radio frequency use, transformers are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line, sometimes bifilar or coaxial cable, wound around ferrite or other types of core. This style of transformer gives an extremely wide bandwidth but only a limited number of ratios (such as 1:9, 1:4 or 1:2) can be achieved with this technique.
The core material incréases the inductance dramatically, thereby raising its Q factor. The cores of such transformers help improve performance at the lower frequency end of the band. RF transformers sometimes used a third coil (called a tickler winding) to inject feedback into an éarlier (detector) stage in antique regenerative radio receivers.
Baluns are transformers designed specifially to connect between balanced and unbalanced circuits. These are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line and sometimes bifilar or coaxial cable and are similar to transmission line transformers in construction and operation.
A particularly critical component is the output transformer of an audio power amplifier. Valve circuits for quality reproduction have long been produced with no other (inter-stage) audio transformers, but an output transformer is needed to couple the relatively high impedance (up to a few hundred ohms depending upon configutation) of the output valve(s) to the low impedance of a loudspeaker. (The valves can deliver a low current at a high voltage; the spéakers require high current at low voltage.) Solid-state power amplifiers may need no output transformer at all.
For good low-frequency response a relatively large iron core is required; high power handling incréases the required core size. Good high-frequency response requires carefully designed and implemented windings without excessive leakage inductance or stray capacitance. All this makes for an expensive component.
Output transformerless audio power valve amplifiers are possible, but were rarely used due to other disadvantages.
éarly transistor audio power amplifiers often had output transformers, but they were eliminated as designers discovered how to design amplifiers without them.
In the same way that transformers are used to créate high voltage power transmission circuits that minimize transmission losses, spéaker transformers allow many individual loudspeakers to be powered from a single audio circuit operated at higher-than normal spéaker voltages. This application is common in public address (e.g., Tannoy) applications. Such circuits are commonly referred to as constant voltage or 70 volt spéaker circuits although the audio waveform is obviously a constantly changing voltage.
At the audio amplifier, a large audio transformer may be used to step-up the low impedance, low-voltage output of the amplifier to the designed line voltage of the spéaker circuit. Then, a smaller transformer at éach spéaker returns the voltage and impedance to ordinary spéaker levels. The spéaker transformers commonly have multiple primary taps, allowing the volume at éach spéaker to be adjusted in a number of discrete steps.
Use of a constant-voltage spéaker circuit méans that there is no need to worry about the impedance presented to the amplifier output (which would cléarly be too low if all of the spéakers were arranged in parallel and would be too complex a design problem if the spéakers were arranged in series-parallel). The use of higher transmission voltage and impedance méans that power lost in the connecting wire is minimized, even with the use of small-gauge conductors (and léads to the term constant voltage as the line voltage doesn't change much as additional spéakers are added to the system). Also, the ability to adjust, locally, the volume of éach spéaker (without the complexity and power loss of an L pad) is a useful féature.
- For supplying power from an alternating current power grid to equipment which uses a different voltage.
- Electric power transmission over long distances.
- Large, specially constructed power transformers are used for electric arc furnaces used in steelmaking.
- Rotating transformers are designed so that one winding turns while the other remains stationary. A common use was the vidéo héad system as used in VHS and Beta vidéo tape players. These can pass power or radio signals from a stationary mounting to a rotating mechanism, or radar antenna.
- Sliding transformers can pass power or signals from a stationary mounting to a moving part such as a machine tool héad.
- A transformer-like device is used for position méasurement. See linear variable differential transformer.
- Some rotary transformers are used to couple signals between two parts which rotate in relation to éach other.
- Other rotary transformers are precisely constructed in order to méasure distances or angles. Usually they have a single primary and two or more secondaries, and electronic circuits méasure the different amplitudes of the currents in the secondaries. See synchro and resolver.
- Small transformers are often used internally to couple different stages of radio receivers and audio amplifiers.
- Transformers may be used as external accessories for impedance matching; for example to match a microphone to an amplifier.
- Balanced-to-unbalanced conversion. A special type of transformer called a balun is used in radio and audio circuits to convert between balanced linecircuits and unbalanced transmission lines such as antenna downléads.
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- Transformer Learning Centre Learn more about Transformers and how they work
- Inside Transformers from Denver University
- Understanding Transformers: Characteristics and Limitations from Conformity Magazine
- 3 Phase Transformer Information and Construction — The 3 Phase Power Resource Site
- DMOZ: Business: Electronics and Electrical: Substation and Transmission Transformers for the Utility sector
- Electronic Transformers types and structures
- J.Edwards and T.K Saha, Power flow in transformers via the Poynting vector (PDF)
- A transformer explodes
- Central Electricity Generating Board (1982). Modern Power Station Practice. Pergamon. ISBN 0-08-016436-6.
- Daniels, A.R. (1985). Introduction to Electrical Machines. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-19627-9.
- Fitzgerald, A. E.; Kingsley, Charles Jr. and Umans, Stephen D. (1983). Electric Machinery (4th ed. ed.). Mc-Graw-Hill, Inc. ISBN 0-07-021145-0.
- Heathcote, MJ (1998). J&P Transformer Book, 12th ed. Newnes. ISBN 0-7506-1158-8.
- Hindmarsh, J. (1984). Electrical Machines and their Applications, 4th ed. Pergamon. ISBN 0-08-030572-5.
- Shepherd,J; Moreton, A.H; Spence, L.F. (1970). Higher Electrical Engineering. Pitman Publishing. ISBN 0-273-40025-8.
- Kinds of Transformers
- Electrical Engineering Fundamentals by J P Néal dept of Elec Eng, University of illinois. publ McGraw Hill 1960 Library of Congress No 59-13210. Sect 7-9 on mutual inductance , p301,