Buka ménu utama

Rungkun Basa Indo-Arya (dina kontéks Panalungtikan Indo-Éropa ogé Indik[1]) ngawengku hiji bagian ti rungkun basa Indo-Iran, nu mana mangrupa bagian ti rungkun basa Indo-Éropa. Panyatur Indo-Arya ngawangun kira-kira saparo (kira-kira 1,5 triliun) ti sadaya panyatur Indo-Éropa (kira-kira 3 triliun). Indo-Arya ogé miboga leuwih ti saparo ti sadaya basa Indo-Éropa nu diakuan, numutkeun kana Ethnologue.

Indo-Arya
Indic
Pasebaran
géografis:
Asia Kidul
Klasifikasi basa:Indo-Éropa
Babagian:
Zona Kalér (ngawengku sababaraha Hindi)
Zona Tengah (ngawengku sababaraha Hindi)
Zona Wétan (ngawengku sababaraha Hindi)
ISO 639-2 and 639-5:inc
Indoarische Sprachen Gruppen.png
Pasebaran géografis basa-basa Indo-Arya utami (Urdu teu katémbong ku sabab basa éta utamina mangrupa lingua franca tanpa sacara ilahar mangrupa basa kahiji. Di luareun peta nyaéta Basa Romani).

Basa nu boga panyatur tulén panglobana nyaéta Hindustan (Hindi-Urdu) (kira-kira 240 yuta), Bengali (kira-kira 230 yuta), Punjab (kira-kira 90 yuta), Marathi (kira-kira 70 yuta), Gujarat (kira-kira 45 yuta), Oriya (kira-kira 30 yuta), Sindhi (kira-kira 20 yuta), Nepali (kira-kira 14 yuta), Sinhala (kira-kira 16 yuta), Saraiki (kira-kira 14 yuta), sarta Assam (kira-kira 13 yuta) kalawan jumlah total panyatur tulén leuwih ti 900 yuta.

Tingali ogéÉdit

RujukanÉdit

  1. Perhatoskeun yén, teu kawas kecap sipat (Basa Inggris) "Indian", "Indik" ("Indic") dipaké dina kontéks linguistika Indo-Éropa, sarta sanés miboga harti géografis spésifik; Basa non-Indo-Éropa nu dipaké di India teu kaasup dina hartina, samentawis Superstrata Indo-Arya di Mitanni, Romani, Dom, Kassite, Sindi jsb., mangrupa basa-basa Indik nu dipaké di luar anakbuana éta
  • John Beames, A comparative grammar of the modern Aryan languages of India: to wit, Hindi, Panjabi, Sindhi, Gujarati, Marathi, Oriya, and Bangali. Londinii: Trübner, 1872-1879. 3 vols.
  • Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh, ed. (2003), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, ISBN 9780415772945 .
  • Madhav Deshpande (1979). Sociolinguistic attitudes in India: An historical reconstruction. Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers. ISBN 0-89720-007-1, ISBN 0-89720-008-X (pbk).
  • Chakrabarti,Byomkes (1994). A comparative study of Santali and Bengali. Calcutta: K.P. Bagchi & Co. ISBN 8170741289
  • Erdosy, Géorge. (1995). The Indo-Aryans of ancient South Asia: Language, material culture and ethnicity. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-014447-6.
  • Kobayashi, Masato.; & George Cardona (2004). Historical phonology of old Indo-Aryan consonants. Tokyo: Reséarch Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. ISBN 4-87297-894-3.
  • Masica, Colin (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521299442 .
  • Misra, Satya Swarup. (1980). Fresh light on Indo-European classification and chronology. Varanasi: Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan.
  • Misra, Satya Swarup. (1991–1993). The Old-Indo-Aryan, a historical & comparative grammar (Vols. 1-2). Varanasi: Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan.
  • Sen, Sukumar. (1995). Syntactic studies of Indo-Aryan languages. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Foreign Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.
  • Vacek, Jaroslav. (1976). The sibilants in Old Indo-Aryan: A contribution to the history of a linguistic area. Prague: Charles University.

Tumbu kaluarÉdit

Citakan:Indo-Iranian languages

Citakan:Languages of South Asia