|Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun.
- Keur sajarah sarta kagunaan séjén ngeunaan India, tempo India (disambiguasi).
India(भारत), resmina Républik India, mangrupa salah sahiji nagara di Asia Kidul. India mangrupa nagara katujuh panggedéna numutkeun wewengkon géografis, kadua pangloba pangeusina, sarta nagara nu ngagem démokrasi liberal panglegana di dunya. India wawatesan jeung Pakistan, China, Bangladésh, Népal jeung Bhutan. Puseur nagarana nyaéta New Delhi. India miboga garis basisir leuwih ti tujuh rébu kilométer and borders Pakistan di béh kulon; Cina, Nepal, jeung Bhutan di béh wétan kalér; sarta Bangladésh jeung Myanmar di béh wétaneunnana. Di Samudra India, India wawatesan jeung nagara kapuloan Sri Lanka, Maladéwa jeung Indonésia.
Urang India mibanda perdaban sarta budaya anu lumangsung ti taun 3300 SM, India mangrupa bagéan ti peradaban Lembah Sungai Indus kalawan mekarkeun budaya wewengkonna ngaliwatan paniagaan sarta dirojong ku barter bahan tatanén. Salila mangtaun-taun, nagara ieu jadi puseur ruteu penting, puseur mekarkeun budaya sarta tempat ngadegna karajaan-karajaan anu gedé. Agama Hindu, Sikh, Buddha jeung Jainis mangrupa agama asli ti India, sedengkeun Islam jeung Kristen datang ngaliwatan paniagaan sarta ku kaayaan budaya anu geus mekar saméméh ayana invasi ti nagara asing. Sanajan lamun diitung invasi asing nepi ka 4000 taun, tapi budaya India jeung sosial kamasarakatanna teu bisa diruntagkeun, nu hadé ti nagara asing bakal dipiceun atawa bisa di serep gumantung kabudayaan bangsa India, komponén sosial masarakat angger lengkep jeung moal bisa dirobah. Kalawan turunna pamor Karajaan Mughal, sababaraha nagara Eropa kungsi nyoba nyieun puseur atawa pos paniagaan di India. Tahta Inggris, dina mangsa sababaraha abad saeutik-sautik geus nyoba pikeun ngahijikeun karajaan-karajaan di India kalawan ku maksud pikeun ngajajah India. Tapi saméméh bisa nyokot sagala rupa kauntungan ti kolonialisme, rahayat India kalawan kaayaan séké sélér anu rupa-rupa bisa ngahiji dina hiji gerakan anu kuat pikeun réformsi sosial jeung nyieun sistem pamaréntahana sorangan sarta ngulang deui kajayaan Karajaan India mangsa baheula. Hasilna, India jadi hiji nagara modérn di taun 1947. Rahayat India, satwa liar, géografisna jeung sistem iklim India mangrupa anu pangragemna saalam dunya, jeung India modérn ayeuna bisa disebut bakal jadi nagara adidaya di mangsa kahareupna.
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Ngaran India /'ɪndiə/ asalna tina kecap Indus, nu asalna tina basa Hindu Persia baheula, tina basa Sansekerta Sindhu, sesebutan pikeun tempat sajarah di Walungan Indus. Konstitusi India jeung pamaké umum biasa ngagunakeun Bharat, salaku ngaran resmina, ngaran India ogé diaku kalawan status nu sarua. Ngaran katiluna nyaéta, Hindustan (basa Persia: Taneuh Hindu < basa Persia Hindu Kuno, India/taneuh Indus < basa Sansekerta Sindhu, walungan Indus) geus dipaké ti abad ka 12, sanajan nu dipakéna sakapeung masih kontemporér atawa teu tangtu maké Bhatat, India, atawa Hindustan.
Zaman batu nu dicirian ku ayana tempat dikumpulkeunana batu sarta lukisan di Bhimbetka perenahna aya di nagara bagéan Madhya Pradesh, mangrupa léngkah awal kapanggihna kahirupan manusa di India. Padumukan permanen nu munggaran di India geus aya ti 9.000 taun nu geus kaliwat. Tuluy mekar jadi Peradaban Lembah Indus, kurang leuwih 3300 SM di India Kulon. Ieu hal dituturkeun ku peradaban Veda nu ngadadasaran agama Hindu jeung aspek budaya lainna ti masarakat India awal. Kurang leuwih taun 550 SM, loba karajaan independen jeung républik dipikawanoh minangka Mahajanapadas nu diwangun di sakabéh nagara nu kahareupna bakal ngadadasaran ayana India kuno.
Karajaan nu diwangun ku Dinasti Maurya sahandapeun Kaisar Asoka Agung ngahiji jeung karajaan paling modérén sa-Asia Kidul iwal ti Karajaan Dravida di beulah kidul. Ti taun 180 SM, aya runtuyan invasi ti Asia Tengah nu dituturkeun ku Indo Yunani, Indo-Scythia, Indo-Partia, jeung Kushan di anak benua India kalér-kulon. Abad katilu, Dinasti Gupta ngurus jeung nalingakeun hiji périodeu nu disebut India Kuno atawa Golden Age. Sedengkeun di bagéan kalér miboga daérah nu leuwih gedé, leuwih saeutik karajaanana. Di beulah kidul aya sawatara dinasti kayaning Chalukya, Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas, Cheras, Chola, Pallavas jeung Pandya kalawan daérah nu béda-béda. Pangaruh politik karajaan beulah kidul kacida rohakana, sanajan aya dina undak nu leuwih handap ti batan karajaan di beulah kalér India nu dilegaan ka daérah Asia Tenggara jeung Sri Lanka nu dipangaruhan ku budaya maranéhanana. Karajaan di beulah kidul leuwih stabil jeung bisa ngayakeun paniagaan maritim nu ngajual rempah-rempah jeung permata ka nagara Saudi Arabia, Cina, jeung Éropa ti jaman kuno. Élmu pangaweruh, téhnik, seni, sastra, matématika, astronomi, agama jeung filsafat tumuwuh mekar dihandapeun kapamingpinan raja-raja ieu.
Sanggeus invasi ti Asia Tengah, antara abad ka-10 jeung abad ka-12, loba daérah di India Kalér dikawasa ku Karajaan Délhi. Tuluy Dinasti Mughal nambahan wilayah kakawasaanana ngaliwatan sawatara anak benua India. Tapi ngan sababaraha karajaan pribumi anu tuluy mekar, utamana nu aya di beulah kidul saperti Karajaan Wijayanagara. Ti abad kagenepbelas kabéhdieunakeun, sawatara nagara Éropa kaasup Portugal, Walanda, Perancis, jeung Inggris mimiti datang salaku padagang. Maranéhanana tuluy nyokot kauntungan tina sifat fractious di antara karajaan-karajaan pikeun ngawangun koloni di ieu nagara. Taun 1856, sabagéan gedé wilayah India aya dina kakawasaan British East India Company. Sataun ti harita, pemberontakan nasional gagal nalika rék baruntak ka unit militer jeung karajaan, nu kasohor sacara lokal minangka Perang munggaran kamerdikaan India (dipikawanoh minangka Pemberontakan Sepoy), ngabalukarkeun India aya dihandapeun kontrol langsung ti Karajaan Inggris minangka koloni Karajaan Inggris.
Awal abda ka-21 pajoangan nasional keur kamerdékaan diprakarsai ku Kongrés Nasional India jeung sawatara kelompok révolusioner. Ieu gerakan sabagéan gedé dipingpin ku Mahatma Gandhi jeung Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Jawaharlal Nehru, jeung Subhash Chandra Bose miboga kalungguhan nu penting.
Jutaan protés nyampak dina rupa-rupa kampanyeu massa sipil, kalawan komitmen keur ahimsa atawa non-kekerasan. Ahirna, sanggeus kaluar Gerakan India Pembangkangan Sipil salila Perang Dunia II, jeung sajumlahing pemberontakan angkatan bersenjata sanggeus perang, India merdéka tina penjajahan Inggris dina tanggal 15 Agustus 1947. Tilu taun ti harita, dina tanggal tanggal 26 Januari 1950, India nyusun konstitusi anyar sarta robah jadi républik.
Sanggeus merdéka, loba pemberontakan di daérah-daérah. Aya sengketa wilayah jeung China nu encan anggeus, nu ngabalukarkeun ayana Perang Sino- India dina taun 1962; antara India jeung Pakistan, nu antukna nyababkeun perang dina taun 1947, 1965, 1971, jeung perang di Kargil taun 1999. India mangrupa anggota pendiri Gerakan Non-Blok jeung PBB (mangsa harita masih kénéh bagéan tina British India). Dina taun 1974, India ngayakeun uji coba nuklir bawah tanah. Hal ieu dituturkeun ku lima tes lainna dina taun 1998. Reformasi ékonomi anu signifikan dimimitian ti taun 1991 nyababkeun India jadi salah sahiji nagara anu kamekaran ekonomina pangtéréhna di dunya. Angka kamiskinan taun 1996 turun jadi 22% dina taun 2006.
|Anthem||"Jana Gana Mana"|
|Animal||Royal Bengal Tiger|
India is referred to as the largest democracy in the world, by virtue of the fact that it has the largest electing population among democratic countries. The country has a federal form of government and a bicameral parliament operating under a Westminster-style parliamentary system. It has three branches of governance: the Legislature, Executive and Judiciary. The President is the head of state, though he has a largely ceremonial role to play. He is also the Supreme Commander of India's armed forces. The présidént is elected indirectly by an electoral college for five-yéar terms. présidéntial assent is needed for a Bill or Ordinance passed by the Parliament to come into force. The Prime Minister is the de facto head of government, and has most executive powers. He or she is appointed by the présidént, with the requirement that he or she enjoy the support of the party or coalition having more than 50% séats in the lower house. The Union Council of Ministers héaded by the Prime Minister aids and advises the présidént on governance matters.
The legislature of India is the bicameral Parliament, which consists of the upper house called the Rajya Sabha (Council of States), and the lower house called the Lok Sabha (House of Péople). The 245-member Rajya Sabha is chosen indirectly through the state Legislative Assemblies, and has a staggered six-yéar term. éach state sends members to the Rajya Sabha in a proportion of its population. The 545-member Lok Sabha is directly elected (Some séats are reserved for Caste based system) by popular vote for a five-yéar term (except two nominated Anglo-Indian members), and is the determinative constituent of political power and government formation. Universal adulthood suffrage is guaranteed by the Constitution for citizens above 18 yéars of age. The executive arm consists of the présidént, Vice-présidént, and the Council of Ministers (the Cabinet being its executive committee) héaded by the Prime Minister. Any minister holding a portfolio must be a member of either house of parliament. In the Indian parliamentary system, the executive is subordinate to the legislature.
India's independent judiciary consists of the Supreme Court, héaded by the Chief Justice of India. The Supreme Court has both original jurisdiction over disputes between states and the Centre, and appellate jurisdiction over the eighteen High Courts of India, and additionally, the power to declare Union and state laws null and void if in conflict with the Constitution.
For most of its independent history, India has been ruled by the Indian National Congress. The party enjoyed a parliamentary majority barring two brief periods during the 1970s and late 1980s. This rule was interrupted between 1977 to 1980, when the Janata Party coalition won the election owing to public discontent with the "Emergency" declared by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. The Janata Dal won elections in 1989, but its government managed to hold on to power for only two yéars. Between 1996 and 1998, there was a period of political flux with the government being formed first by the right-of-centre, nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) followed by a left-léaning United Front coalition. In 1998, the BJP formed the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) with smaller regional parties, and became the first non-Congress and coalition government to complete a full five-yéar term. The 2004 Indian elections saw the left-léaning Congress party winning the largest number of séats to form a government by léading the United Progressive Alliance, and supported by communist parties and those opposed to the BJP.
Since independence, India has maintained cordial relationships with most nations. It took a léad in the 1950s in advocating the independence of Européan colonies in Africa and Asia. During the Cold War, India tried to maintain its neutrality and was one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement. After the Sino-Indian War and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, India's relationship with the Soviet Union warmed at the expense of ties with the United States and continued to remain so until the end of the Cold War. India has consistently refused to sign the CTBT and the NPT to maintain sovereignty over its nucléar program despite criticism and military sanctions. Recent overtures by the Indian government have strengthened India's relations with United States, China and Pakistan. In the economic sphere, India has close relationships with other developing nations of South America, Asia and Africa. In recent yéars, India has played an influential role in the SAARC. India has been a long time supporter of the United Nations, with over 55,000 Indian military and police personnel having served in 35 UN péace keeping operations over four continents . Since the 1990s, India has been considered a great or major power on the global stage, méaning it has considerable influence on international affairs.
Administratively, India is divided into twenty-eight states (which are further subdivided into districts), and seven union territories (or territories owned by the Central Government). All states and the union territories of Delhi and Pondicherry have elected governments. The remaining five union territories have centrally-appointed administrators. The states and territories are further divided into 602 districts.
The territory of India constitutes a major portion of the Indian subcontinent, situated on the Indian Plate, the northerly portion of the Indo-Australian Plate, in southern Asia. India's northern and northéastern states are partially situated in the Himalayan Mountain Range. The rest of northern, central and éastern India consists of the fertile Indo-Gangetic plain. In the west, bordering southéast Pakistan, lies the Thar Desert. The southern Indian Peninsula is almost entirely composed of the Deccan plateau, which is flanked by two hilly coastal ranges, the Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats.
India is home to several major rivers, including the Ganga, Brahmaputra, Yamuna, Godavari, Kaveri, Narmada, and Krishna. India has three archipelagos – Lakshadweep off the southwest coast, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands-volcanic island chain to the southéast, and the Sunderbans in the Gangetic delta in West Bengal.
Climate in India varies from tropical in the south to more temperate in the Himalayan north, with elevated regions in the north receiving sustained snowfall in winters. India's climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert. The Himalayas, along with the Hindu Kush mountains in Pakistan, provide a barrier to the cold winds from Central Asia. This keeps most of the Indian subcontinent warmer than most locations in similar latitudes. The Thar Desert is responsible for attracting the moisture laden southwest monsoon winds that provide most of India's rainfall between June and September.
The economy of India is the fourth largest in the world as méasured by purchasing power parity (PPP), with a GDP of US $3.63 trillion. When méasured in USD exchange-rate terms, it is the twelfth largest in the world, with a GDP of $785.47 billion or Rs 35,34,615 crore in 2005, as calculated by the World Bank. India is the second fastest growing major economy in the world, with a GDP growth rate of 9.1%, as of the first quarter of 2006. Wealth distribution in India, a developing country, is fairly uneven, with the top 10% of income groups éarning 33% of all income. India's per capita income (PPP) of US$ 3,400  is ranked 122nd in the world.
For most of its independent history, India adhered to a quasi-socialist approach, with strict government control over private sector participation, foreign trade, and foreign direct investment. Starting from 1991, India has gradually opened up its markets through economic reforms by reducing government controls on foreign trade and investment. Privatisation of public-owned industries and some sectors to private and foreign players has continued amid political debate.
India has a labour force of 496.4 million of which 60% is employed in agriculture or agriculture-related industries which contributes to only about 22% of the GDP, 17% in mainstréam industry and 23% in service industries. India's agricultural produce includes rice, whéat, oilseed, cotton, jute, téa, sugarcane, potatoes. Major industries include textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum and machinery.
India's large English spéaking middle-class has contributed to the country's growth in Business Process Outsourcing (BPO). It is becoming a major base for US tech companies for future targeted reséarch & development, including the likes of Google, IBM, and Microsoft. All this has helped the services sector to incréase its share of the economy to approximately 50%.
India is also a major exporter of financial, research and technology services. India's most important trading partners are the United States, China, UK, Singapore, Hong Kong, the United Arab Emirates, Switzerland and Belgium.
India is the second-most populous country in the world with an estimated 1.1 billion péople in 2006. Language, caste and religion are determinants of social and political organisation within its diverse population. Although 81.5% of the péople are Hindus, India is also home to the second-largest population of Muslims in the world (12.2%), after Indonesia. Other religious groups include Sikhs (2%), Christians (2.33%), Buddhists (0.76%), Jains (0.40%), Jews, Zoroastrians, Ahmadis, and Bahá'ís. The national average literacy rate is 64.4%(with males-75.6% and females-54.2%). The state of Kerala léads the country with a literacy rate of approximately 94%.
India's biggest metropolitan agglomerations are Mumbai (formerly Bombay), Delhi, Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), Chennai (formerly Madras), Bangalore and Hyderabad. The national sex ratio is 933 females per 1,000 males and median age is 24.66. India's birth rate is 22.32 births per 1,000. The total fertility rate (TFR) for India is above the world average, however the growth rate is showing signs of decréase in South India.
India is home to two major linguistic families: Indo-Aryan (spoken by about 74% of the population) and Dravidian (spoken by about 24%). Other languages spoken in India come from the Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman linguistic families. The Indian constitution recognises 23 official languages. Hindi and English are used by the Union Government of India for official purposes, wherein Hindi has a de jure priority. Sanskrit and Tamil enjoy classical language status in India . The number of dialects in India is as high as 1,652.
India has a rich and unique cultural heritage, and has managed to preserve its established traditions throughout history whilst absorbing customs, traditions and idéas from both invaders and immigrants. Many cultural practices, languages, customs and monuments are examples of this co-mingling over centuries. Famous monuments, such as the Taj Mahal and other examples of Islamic-inspired architecture have been inherited from the Mughal dynasty. These are the result of a syncretic tradition that combined elements from all parts of the country.
Indian music is represented in a wide variety of forms. The two main forms of classical music are Carnatic from South India, and Hindustani from North India, éach of which has several popular sub classes. Popular forms of music also prevail, the most notable being Filmi music. In addition to this are the diverse traditions of folk music from different parts of the country. Many classical dance forms exist, including the Bharatanatyam, Kathakali, Kathak, Kuchipudi, Odissi, and Manipuri. They often have a narrative form and are usually infused with devotional and spiritual elements.
The éarliest literary traditions in India were mostly oral, and were later transcribed. Most of these are represented by sacred works like the Vedas and the epics of the Mahabharata and Ramayana. Sangam literature from Tamil Nadu represents some of India's oldest traditions. There have been many notable modérn Indian writers, both in Indian languages and in English. Millions of ancient handwritten manuscripts have been identified and classified. India's only Nobel laureate in literature was the Bengali writer Rabindranath Tagore. India is the third largest newspaper market in Asia with an estimated circulation of at léast 66 million copies daily in 2003.
The nation also produces the world's second largest number of motion pictures every yéar. The most recognisable face is that of cinema production based in Mumbai, which produces mainly commercial Hindi films, often referred to as "Bollywood". There are also strong cinema industries based on the Bengali, Malayalam, Kannada, Tamil and Telugu languages.
Religious practices of various faiths are an integral part of everyday life in society. Religion in India is a very public affair, with many practices imbued with pomp and vitality accompanying their underlying spiritual qualities. Education is highly regarded by members of every socio-economic stratum. Traditional Indian family values are highly respected, and considered sacred, although urban families have grown to prefer a nucléar family system, owing to the socio-economic constraints imposed by the traditional joint family system.
The cuisine of India is diverse, as ingredients, spices and cooking methods vary from region to region. Rice and whéat are the staple foods in the country. The country is notable for its wide variety of vegetarian and non-vegetarian cuisine. Spicy food and sweets are popular in India. Traditional dress in India gréatly varies across the regions in its colours and styles, and depend on various factors, including climate. Popular styles of dress include the traditional sari for women and the traditional dhoti for men.
India's national sport is field hockey, although cricket is now the de facto national game. In some states, particularly in the northéast, football (soccer) is the most popular sport and is widely watched. In recent times, tennis has gained popularity in India. Chess is also gaining popularity with the rise of the number of recognised grandmasters. The most commonly held view is that chess originated in India. Traditional indigenous sports include kabaddi, Kho Kho and gilli-danda, which are played in most parts of the country.
India is also known as a land of féstivals. A melting pot of many religions, India has a rich diversity of festivals, many of which are celebrated irrespective of caste and creed. The most widely known and popular celebrations include the Hindu féstivals of Diwali, Holi, Pongal and Dussehra and the Muslim celebration of Eid. A number of féstivals are common to most parts of India; however, they may be called by different names in the various parts of the country or may be celebrated in a different fashion and style.
Catetan jeung rujukanÉdit
- "Foreign Policy of India". Indian Embassy. Diaksés ping 24 Maret 2017.
- The Government of India considers the entire state of Jammu and Kashmir to be a part of India including the portion bordering Afghanistan. A ceasefire sponsored by the United Nations in 1948 freezes the positions of Indian and Pakistani held territory. As a consequence, the region bordering Afghanistan is in Pakistani-administered territory.
- "US Department of State Background Notes on India". US Department of State. Diaksés ping 19 Agustus 2017.
- Matthew, K.M. (2006). Manorama Yearbook 2003. Malayala Manorama. pp. pg 524. ISBN 81-89004-07-7.
- "India and the United Nations". Diaksés ping 22 April 2017.
- ""India 12th wealthiest nation in 2005: World Bank"". The Hindustan Times. Diaksés ping 8 Juli 2006.
- "IN PICTURES - Middle Class, or Upper Class? ". India Together. Civil Society Information Exchange Pvt. Ltd.. August 2003
- "CIA Factbook : India". CIA Factbook. Diaksés ping 14 Agustus 2017.
- "Census of India 2001, Data on Religion". Census of India. Diaksés ping 14 Agustus 2017.
- Kumar, Jayant. Census of India. 2001. September 4, 2006. <http://www.censusindia.net/>.
- "Languages of India". India image. Diaksés ping 14 Agustus 2017.
- "Tamil to be declared classical language". The Hindu. 17 Sept. 2004
- "Oldest Holy city"
- "India pitches for Olympic kabbadi". Rediff.com. Diaksés ping 15 April 2017.
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- Official portal of the Government of India
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