Buka ménu utama

Parobahan

9.094 bita ditambahkeun, 10 bulan yang lalu
Dijieun ku cara narjamahkeun kaca "Astronomi Maya"

'''Astronomi Maya''' téh hiji topik étnoastronomi atawa arkéoastronomi ti [[kabudayaan Maya]] saméméh [[Christopher Columbus|Christopher Colombus]] di wewengkon [[Amérika Tengah]]. Astronomi Maya ngulikan hubungan arsitéktur, adat istiadat, kalénder, [[Artéfak|artépak]], kapercayaan [[urang Maya]] kana objék jeung kajadian anu lumangsung di langit.<ref name=":6">{{Cite news|url=https://www.livescience.com/55837-mayan-astronomers-made-sophisticated-calculations.html|title=The Maya Were Tracking the Planets Long Before Copernicus|newspaper=Live Science|access-date=2017-12-15}}</ref><ref name=":7">{{Cite web|url=http://ircamera.as.arizona.edu/Astr2016/text/extmayaastronomy.htm|title=Maya Astronomy|website=ircamera.as.arizona.edu|accessdate=2017-12-15}}</ref><ref name=":4">{{Cite news|url=https://www.thoughtco.com/ancient-maya-astronomy-2136314|title=How Does Ancient Mayan Astronomy Portray the Sun, Moon and Planets?|newspaper=ThoughtCo|access-date=2017-12-15}}</ref>

Urang Maya boga ahli astronomi anu taliti. Aranjeunna ngembangkeun panalungtikan jeung perkiraan astronomi anu kaasup nu pangakuratna di pikeun astronomi saméméh kapanggihna [[téléskop]].<ref name=":6">{{Cite news|url=https://www.livescience.com/55837-mayan-astronomers-made-sophisticated-calculations.html|title=The Maya Were Tracking the Planets Long Before Copernicus|newspaper=Live Science|access-date=2017-12-15}}</ref> Aranjeunna percaya yén déwa-déwa nyarios langkung panonpoé, bulan, béntang, jeung planét. Ku kituna astronomi mangrupa hal nu penting. Aranjeunna ogé nyieun rupa-rupa wangunan nu patali jeung astronomi. Urang Maya nalungtik objék-objék astronomi kawas [[Panonpoé]], [[Bulan]], [[Vénus]] jeung sababaraha planét séjén. Urang Maya ogé kagungan sistim kalénder anu dijieun dumasar kana panalungtikan astronomi.<ref name=":6" /><ref name=":7">{{Cite web|url=http://ircamera.as.arizona.edu/Astr2016/text/extmayaastronomy.htm|title=Maya Astronomy|website=ircamera.as.arizona.edu|accessdate=2017-12-15}}</ref>

== Kosmologi dina kapercayaan Urang Maya ==

====== Konsép kosmologi umum ======
Urang Maya kuna percaya yén [[jagat]] téh diciptakeun jeung diancurkeun (kiamat) dina hiji daur unggal 5.200 taun.<ref name=":3">{{Cite web|url=http://www.historymuseum.ca/cmc/exhibitions/civil/maya/mmc03eng.shtml|title=Civilization.ca - Mystery of the Maya - Cosmology and religion|website=www.historymuseum.ca|accessdate=2017-12-15}}</ref> Dina kabudayaan Maya, daur nu lumangsung kiwari mimiti taun 3114 SM atawa 3113 SM, ku kituna karuksakan atawa kiamat numutkeun ramalan tina budaya Maya kuna bakal aya dina taun 2011 atawa 2012.<ref name=":3" /><ref name=":5">{{Cite news|url=https://www.ancient.eu/Maya_Religion/|title=Maya Religion|newspaper=Ancient History Encyclopedia|access-date=2017-12-15}}</ref> Aya rupa-rupa sawala ngeunaan konsép kosmologi nu kawas kumaha nu dipercaya ku masarakat kuna Maya. Raloba panalungtikan arkéoastronomi nunjukkeun yén urang Maya percaya wangun [[Marcapada]] téh datar sarta boga geus opat sisi juru. Unggal juru aya dina arah angin utama jeung dibéré warna—warna beureum pikeun wétan, bodas pikeun kalér, hideung pikeun kulon, konéng pikeun kidul, jeung bagian tengah anu dibéré warna héjo.<ref name=":3" />

Kabudayaan Maya percaya yén langit téh boga tingkat anu unggal juruna dirojong ku opat déwa kiat nu ngranna ''Bacabs.<ref name=":5">{{Cite news|url=https://www.ancient.eu/Maya_Religion/|title=Maya Religion|newspaper=Ancient History Encyclopedia|access-date=2017-12-15}}</ref>'' Langit dirojong ogé ku opat rupa tangkal nu warna jeung spésiésna beda-beda unggal juru, kalawan tangkal kapuk warna héjo di wewengkon tengah.<ref name=":3">{{Cite web|url=http://www.historymuseum.ca/cmc/exhibitions/civil/maya/mmc03eng.shtml|title=Civilization.ca - Mystery of the Maya - Cosmology and religion|website=www.historymuseum.ca|accessdate=2017-12-15}}</ref><ref name=":5" />

Wangun Marcapada nu rata téh dipercaya aya di hareupeun tonggong hiji [[buhaya]] raksasa nu keur reureuh dina hiji kulah [[saroja]].<ref name=":5">{{Cite news|url=https://www.ancient.eu/Maya_Religion/|title=Maya Religion|newspaper=Ancient History Encyclopedia|access-date=2017-12-15}}</ref> Pikeun langit, buaya diganti ku [[oray]] nu huluna dua.<ref name=":3">{{Cite web|url=http://www.historymuseum.ca/cmc/exhibitions/civil/maya/mmc03eng.shtml|title=Civilization.ca - Mystery of the Maya - Cosmology and religion|website=www.historymuseum.ca|accessdate=2017-12-15}}</ref> Dina [[Aksara Maya|hieroglip Maya]] nu kapanggih, oray nu huluna dua ieu digambar sareng objék langit séjénna kawas Panonpoé, Bulan, Vénus, jeung sajabana.<ref name=":3" />

Langit dipercaya boga 13 lapisan nu unggalna boga pangawasa. Lapisan nu pangluhurna dikawasaan ku manuk ''muan'', sajinis [[bueuk]].<ref name=":5">{{Cite news|url=https://www.ancient.eu/Maya_Religion/|title=Maya Religion|newspaper=Ancient History Encyclopedia|access-date=2017-12-15}}</ref> Bagian nu dihartikeun salaku dunya handap boga salapan nu dikawasaan ku Déwa Peuting. Dunya handap ieu tiis jeung pinuh ku sangsara sarta mangrupa patempatan ahir loba manusa sanggeus maot. Objék angkasa kawas Panonpoé, Bulan, jeung Venus dipercaya ngaliwatan lapisan ieu sanggeus surup.<ref name=":3">{{Cite web|url=http://www.historymuseum.ca/cmc/exhibitions/civil/maya/mmc03eng.shtml|title=Civilization.ca - Mystery of the Maya - Cosmology and religion|website=www.historymuseum.ca|accessdate=2017-12-15}}</ref>

====== Konsép kosmologi dina upacara kaagamaan ======
Urang Maya kagungan raloba déwa dina kapercayaan aranjeunna. Saeutikna aya 166 déwa. Éta téh sabab unggal déwa kagungan loba wujud.<ref name=":5">{{Cite news|url=https://www.ancient.eu/Maya_Religion/|title=Maya Religion|newspaper=Ancient History Encyclopedia|access-date=2017-12-15}}</ref> Sababaraha boga leuwih ti hiji génder, sababaraha bisa wujud kolot atawa ngora. Unggal déwa janten lambang ti rupa-rupa barang langit lamun keur aya di dunya handap, nyaéta lamun aranjeunna keur "maot" dina peuting.<ref name=":3">{{Cite web|url=http://www.historymuseum.ca/cmc/exhibitions/civil/maya/mmc03eng.shtml|title=Civilization.ca - Mystery of the Maya - Cosmology and religion|website=www.historymuseum.ca|accessdate=2017-12-15}}</ref><ref name=":5" />

Sababaraha sumber lianna némbongkeun gambar hiji zat maha kawasa nu ngaranna [[Itzamná]] nu ogé nyiptakeun aksara sakaligus mangrupa déwa seni jeung élmu pangaweruh. Pamajikanana ngaranna [[Ix Chel]], nyaéta déwi tinunan, élmu kadokteran, jeung kalahiran, nu baheulana dipercaya ogé salaku déwi Bulan.<ref name=":3">{{Cite web|url=http://www.historymuseum.ca/cmc/exhibitions/civil/maya/mmc03eng.shtml|title=Civilization.ca - Mystery of the Maya - Cosmology and religion|website=www.historymuseum.ca|accessdate=2017-12-15}}</ref><ref name=":5">{{Cite news|url=https://www.ancient.eu/Maya_Religion/|title=Maya Religion|newspaper=Ancient History Encyclopedia|access-date=2017-12-15}}</ref>

Peran pandita dina kapercayaan Maya raket pisan patalina kana astronomi jeung sistim kalénder. Pandita boga tanggung jawab dina ngatur pangajaran élmu, upacara, sarta ngétang wayah, poé parayaan, poé suci, usum, nepi ka ngaramal, ngubaran panyakit, sarta nulis jeung nyutat kajadian sajarah.<ref name=":3">{{Cite web|url=http://www.historymuseum.ca/cmc/exhibitions/civil/maya/mmc03eng.shtml|title=Civilization.ca - Mystery of the Maya - Cosmology and religion|website=www.historymuseum.ca|accessdate=2017-12-15}}</ref><ref name=":5">{{Cite news|url=https://www.ancient.eu/Maya_Religion/|title=Maya Religion|newspaper=Ancient History Encyclopedia|access-date=2017-12-15}}</ref> Pandita Maya teu kénging sarasmi upami nuju ngajabat. Umumna jabatan pandita ieu diwariskan ti rama ka putrana.<ref name=":3" />

Sakabéh upacara kapercayaan urang Maya dilaksanakeun dumasar kana kalénder husus nu boga 260 poé dina hiji daurna. Unggal upacara ngabogaan harti simbolis.<ref name=":5">{{Cite news|url=https://www.ancient.eu/Maya_Religion/|title=Maya Religion|newspaper=Ancient History Encyclopedia|access-date=2017-12-15}}</ref> Aya larangan sangkan teu sarasmi upami upacara-upacara ieu keur lumangsung. Urang Maya ogé disarankeun ngését bagian awak sorangan pikeun méré getihna nu dipaké dina upacara. Bangsawan Maya karesep pisan jeung getih, boh getihna sorangan boh getih budak beulianna. Upacara anu maké getih penting dina parayaan suci taunan kabudayaan Maya.<ref name=":3">{{Cite web|url=http://www.historymuseum.ca/cmc/exhibitions/civil/maya/mmc03eng.shtml|title=Civilization.ca - Mystery of the Maya - Cosmology and religion|website=www.historymuseum.ca|accessdate=2017-12-15}}</ref><ref name=":5" /> Getih nu dibéré dipercaya bisa ngajaga alam atawa mangrupa sasajén ka déwa. Dina wayah labuhna kabudayaan Maya, aya catetan nu nunjukkeun yén pamingpin-pamingpin wewengkon Maya ngalaksanakeun upacara sarupa ieu ti kota ka kota sangkan nangtayungan nagara maranéhna.<ref name=":3" /><ref name=":5" />
[[Kategori:Kabudayaan Maya]]
7.123

éditan